Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker


  • Rosalind MunroEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_65


A general name used to refer to manufactured or synthetic rock material that is formed by cohesion and then solidifies. Concrete has similarities to a natural deposit of well-cemented, clastic, sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Typical concrete constituents are cement, water, mineral aggregates, and chemical admixtures. Bituminous material is the cement in asphalt concrete, typically called “asphalt” or “black top”; however, the most common cement used in what is called “concrete” is Portland cement, a compound made from clay and limestone. Clay is a source of silica, alumina, and iron, which upon wetting will react with calcium oxide derived from high-temperature roasting of crushed and powdered nearly pure calcite limestone (CaCO3). Wetting transforms powdered Portland cement by hydration into a durable strong solid composed of four silica and alumina compounds: tricalcium silicate (3(CaO)∙SiO2), dicalcium silicate (2(CaO)∙SiO2), tricalcium aluminate (3(CaO)∙Al2O3),...

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  1. USACE (1994) Standard practice for concrete for civil works structures. Engineer Manual EM 1110-2-2000. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC. http://www.publications.usace.army.mil/Portals/76/Publications/EngineerManuals/EM_1110-2-2000.pdf. Accessed Oct 2016

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amec Foster WheelerLos AngelesUSA