Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker


  • Abdul ShakoorEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_62


Densification; Soil stabilization


Compaction or densification is reduction in the volume of voids in a soil mass caused by rearrangement of soil particles by mechanical means.


Compaction is used as a method of stabilizing soils, that is, improving their properties. Compaction is required when soils are used as a construction material in applications such as structural fill, highway and railroad embankments, earth dams and levees, cover and liner material for sanitary landfills, foundation material, and reclamation of mine waste embankments.

Compaction improves almost all desirable properties of soils. It reduces detrimental settlements, increases soil strength and improves its stability, improves bearing capacity, reduces permeability, and reduces volume changes due to frost action, shrinking, and swelling.

Compaction is measured in terms of dry density (ρ d), which is defined as the weight of solids (mineral particles) per unit volume. In the field or...
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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyKent State UniversityKentUSA