Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker


  • Saeide Parvizi
  • Saeid Eslamian
  • Kaveh Ostad-Ali-AskariEmail author
  • Alireza Yazdani
  • Vijay P. Singh
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_216




Percolation can be defined as the flow of fluids through a porous media (filter). Infiltration rate may be defined as the meters per unit time of the entry of water into the soil surface regardless of the types or values of forces or gradients. Water entry into the soil is caused by matric and gravitational forces. Infiltration normally refers to the downward movement (Kirkham 2004).


The rate of infiltration is influenced by the physical characteristics of the soil such as soil hydraulic conductivity (K(θ), LT−1), initial water content (θi, m3 m−3), residual water content (θr, m3 m−3), saturated water content (θs, m3 m−3), soil cover (i.e., plants), soil temperature, and rainfall intensity (Kirkham 2004; Essig et al. 2009). Numerical results have elucidated the role of gravity, capillary forces, and slope angle on infiltration over various periods.

The degree of infiltration very much depends on the soil type and thickness. Sandy soils allow...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saeide Parvizi
    • 1
  • Saeid Eslamian
    • 1
  • Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari
    • 3
    Email author
  • Alireza Yazdani
    • 2
  • Vijay P. Singh
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Water EngineeringIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Civil Engineering Department, Najafabad BranchIslamic Azad UniversityNajafabadIran
  3. 3.Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) BranchIslamic Azad UniversityIsfahanIran
  4. 4.Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering and Zachry Department of Civil EngineeringTexas A & M UniversityCollege StationUSA