Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker

Percolation

  • Saeide Parvizi
  • Saeid Eslamian
  • Kaveh Ostad-Ali-AskariEmail author
  • Alireza Yazdani
  • Vijay P. Singh
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_216

Synonyms

Infiltration

Definition

Percolation can be defined as the flow of fluids through a porous media (filter). Infiltration rate may be defined as the meters per unit time of the entry of water into the soil surface regardless of the types or values of forces or gradients. Water entry into the soil is caused by matric and gravitational forces. Infiltration normally refers to the downward movement (Kirkham 2004).

Context

The rate of infiltration is influenced by the physical characteristics of the soil such as soil hydraulic conductivity (K(θ), LT−1), initial water content (θi, m3 m−3), residual water content (θr, m3 m−3), saturated water content (θs, m3 m−3), soil cover (i.e., plants), soil temperature, and rainfall intensity (Kirkham 2004; Essig et al. 2009). Numerical results have elucidated the role of gravity, capillary forces, and slope angle on infiltration over various periods.

The degree of infiltration very much depends on the soil type and thickness. Sandy soils allow...

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References

  1. Essig ET, Corradini C, Morbidelli R, Govindaraju RS (2009) Infiltration and deep flow over sloping surfaces: comparison of numerical and experimental results. J Hydrol 374:30–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Eulenstein F (2016) Water from agricultural landscapes. Agric Agric Sci Proc 11:59–64Google Scholar
  3. Green WH, Ampt GA (1911) Studies in soil physics. 1. The flow of air and water through soils. J Agric Sci 4(1):1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Grimmett G (1996) Percolation and disordered systems, originally published in: Ecole d’Eté de Probabilités de Saint-Flour XXVIGoogle Scholar
  5. Grimmett G (2016) Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften. Statistical Laboratory University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, p 321Google Scholar
  6. Kirkham MB (2004) Principles of soil and plant water relations. Elsevier, 520 pagesGoogle Scholar
  7. Kivel M, Cambe J, Saramaki J, Karsai M (2017) Mapping temporal-network percolation to weighted, static event graphs. arXiv:1709.05647v1 physics.soc-phGoogle Scholar
  8. Mein RG, Larson CL (1973) Modeling infiltration during a steady rain. Water Resour Res 9(2):384–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Myszka D, Trzaskowski W (2017) The importance of applying the percolation theory to the analysis of the structure of polycrystalline materials. J Manufac Technol 4(1):7–14Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saeide Parvizi
    • 1
  • Saeid Eslamian
    • 1
  • Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari
    • 3
    Email author
  • Alireza Yazdani
    • 2
  • Vijay P. Singh
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Water EngineeringIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Civil Engineering Department, Najafabad BranchIslamic Azad UniversityNajafabadIran
  3. 3.Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) BranchIslamic Azad UniversityIsfahanIran
  4. 4.Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering and Zachry Department of Civil EngineeringTexas A & M UniversityCollege StationUSA