Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker

Gases

  • Brian R. MarkerEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_132

Definition

Elements and compounds in a dispersed physical state that do not resist changes to shape and can expand indefinitely to fill any container. The term is normally restricted to substances that are gaseous at ambient atmospheric temperatures and pressures (but volatile liquids, under ambient conditions, can produce vapours that enter mixtures of gases).

Synonyms

Airborne compounds; Atmospheric elements; Emissions; Vapours

Introduction

Gases of significance in engineering geology are potentially hazardous and can occur in significant amounts in underground cavities (natural and man-made), soils, landfills, and constructions at ambient temperatures and pressures. These normally occur as mixtures with atmospheric gases. Liquids that are volatile in surface and near-surface conditions (especially volatile organic compounds – VOCs) also enter mixtures of gases especially during heat and pressure changes. Therefore, hazardous “gases” originate from natural processes, human...

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References

  1. Appleton JD, Miles JCH, Talbot DK (2000) Dealing with radon emissions in respect of new development. British Geological Survey Research Report RR/00/12 (Keyworth)Google Scholar
  2. Health and Safety Executive (2011) EH40/2005 Workplace exposure limits: containing the list of workplace exposure limits for use with the control of substances hazardous to health regulations (as amended). 2nd edn. The Stationery Office, Norwich. http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/priced/eh40.pdf
  3. National House Building Council and RSK Group plc (2007) Guidance on evaluation of development proposals where methane and carbon dioxide are present. NHBC (Amersham) Report edition No. 04 http://www.nhbc.co.uk/NHBCpublications/LiteratureLibrary/Technical/filedownload,29440,en.pdf
  4. Powlowska M (2014) Mitigation of landfill gas emissions. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LondonUK