Topical Drugs

  • An GoossensEmail author
  • Margarida Gonçalo
Living reference work entry


Topical drugs applied onto the skin or the mucosae can cause local adverse effects, including contact dermatitis, and, eventually, also systemic adverse effects. Allergic contact dermatitis from topical drugs occurs in more than 10% of patients attending contact clinics, but irritant, phototoxic or photo-allergic, as well as immediate reactions (contact urticaria syndrome) and systemic contact dermatitis also occur. Ectopic and connubial dermatitis and exposure in the occupational setting (healthcare professionals, veterinarians, pharmaceutical industry) represent other settings of contact dermatitis to topical drugs.

The active drug or the excipients (preservatives, fragrances) that are responsible for allergic contact dermatitis vary in different studies influenced by local prescribing habits. Antibiotics (neomycin and aminoglycosides, bacitracin, polymyxin B, fusidic acid) and antiseptics (chlorhexidine, povidone-iodine, quaternary ammonium compounds) are among the main culprits, followed by local anesthetics (dibucaine, amethocaine, lidocaine, and benzocaine), corticosteroids (budesonide), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ketoprofen, etofenamate, piroxicam, diclofenac, and benzydamine), but many other drugs can induce contact reactions.

The use of topical drugs on previously damaged skin (stasis dermatitis and/or leg ulcers, otitis externa), under occlusion (transdermal drug delivery systems), onto very thin skin (eyelids), or in body folds (anogenital area) favors skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis; mucosal exposure rather promotes the development of immediate-type skin reactions, which can be severe and life-threatening (chlorhexidine). Contact photosensitivity occurs mostly with promethazine and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, like ketoprofen, in this case with cross-reactivity to benzophenones, octocrylene, and oral fenofibrate. Active drugs and excipients that sensitize by topical use are one of the main causes of systemic contact dermatitis (aminoglycosides, corticosteroids, acyclovir, dibucaine). Herbal medicines are also an important cause of contact reactions.

Since adverse reactions to drugs are being underreported, the national competent authorities should be informed about such reactions in order to feed these into the European database (“EudraVigilance database”) at the European Medicines Agency (EMA).


Topical drugs Antimicrobials Local anesthetics Corticosteroids Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Vehicle component Transdermal therapeutic systems Ophthalmic ENT Anogenital Stasis dermatitis Leg ulcer Systemic contact dermatitis Diagnosis 


  1. 1.
    Gilissen L, Goossens A (2016) Frequency and trends of contact allergy to and iatrogenic contact dermatitis caused by topical drugs over a 25-year period. Contact Dermatitis 75(5):290–302PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Statescu L, Branisteanu D, Dobre C, Solovastry L, Vasilca A, Petrescu Z et al (2011) Contact dermatitis – epidemiological study. Medica J Clin Med 6(4):277–281Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bandmann H, Calnan C, Cronin E, Fregert S, Hjorth N, Magnusson B et al (1972) Dermatitis from applied medicaments. Arch Dermatol 106(3):335–337PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Angelini G, Vena G, Meneghini C (1985) Allergic contact dermatitits to some medicaments. Contact Dermatitis 12:263–269PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goh C (1989) Contact sensitivity to topical medicaments. Int J Dermatol 28:25–28PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dooms-Goossens A (1982) Allergic contact dermatitis to ingredients used in topically applied pharmaceutical products and cosmetics. Katholieke Universitat Leuven, LeuvenGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lazzarini R, Casagrande J, Braga T, Duarte I, Ligabue SL (2009) Allergic contact dermatitis to topical drugs: a descriptive analysis. An Bras Dermatol 84(1):30–34PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bajaj A, Saraswat A, Mukhija G, Rastogi S, Yadav S (2007) Patch testing experience with 1000 patients. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 73:313–318PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brandão F, Goossens A (2011) Topical drugs. In: Johansen JD, Frosch PJ, Lepoittevin J-P (eds) Contact dermatitis, 5th edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Heidelberg, pp 729–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Green C, Holden C, Gawkrodger D (2007) Contact allergy to topical medicaments becomes more common with advancing age: an age-stratified study. Contact Dermatitis 56:229–231PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Uter W, Geier J, Pfahlberg A, Effendy I (2002) The spectrum of contact allergy in elderly patients with and without leg dermatitis. Dermatology 204:266–272PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Martin S, Rustemeyer T, Thyssen J (2018) Recent advances in understanding and managing contact dermatitis. F1000Res 7:810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D’Erme A, Iannone M, Dini V, Romanelli M (2016) Contact dermatitis in patients with chronic leg ulcers: a common and neglected problem: a review 2000–2015. J Wound Care 25(S9):S23–S29PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Erfurt-berge C, Geier J, Mahler V (2017) The current spectrum of contact sensitization in patients with chronic leg ulcers or stasis dermatitis – new data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). Contact Dermatitis 77:151–158PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Erfurt-Berge C, Mahler V (2017) Contact sensitization in patients with lower leg dermatitis, chronic venous insufficiency, and/or chronic leg ulcer: assessment of the clinical relevance of contact allergens. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 27(6):378–380PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rai R, Shenoy M, Viswanath V, Sarma N, Majid I, Dogra S (2018) Contact sensitivity in patients with venous leg ulcer: a multi-centric Indian study. Int Wound J 15(4):618–622PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Garval E, Plee J, Lesage C, Grange-Prunier A, Bernard P, Perceau G (2018) Frequency of contact sensitization to modern dressings used to treat chronic leg ulcer. Ann Dermatol Vénéreol 145(5):339–346PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Valois A, Waton J, Avenel-Audran M, Truchetet F, Collet E, Raison-Peyron N et al (2014) Contact sensitization to modern dressings: a multicentre study on 354 patients with chronic leg ulcers. Contact Dermatitis 72(2):90–96PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cravo M, Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A (2008) Allergic contact dermatitis to rubber-containing bandages in patients with leg ulcers. Contact Dermatitis 58:217–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Spring S, Pratt M, Chaplin A (2012) Contact dermatitis to topical medicaments: a retrospective chart review from the Ottawa Hospital Patch Test Clinic. Dermatitis 23(5):3–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Woodruff C, Trivedi M, Botto N, Kornik R (2018) Allergic contact dermatitis of the vulva. Dermatitis 29(5):233–243PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gorman SMO, Torgerson RR (2013) Allergic contact dermatitis of the vulva. Dermatitis 24(2):64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bauer A, Oehme S, Geier J (2011) Contact sensitization in the anal and genital area. Curr Probl Dermatol 40:133–141PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yale K, Awosika O, Rengifo-pardo M, Ehrlich A (2018) Genital allergic contact dermatitis. Dermatitis 29(3):112–119PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Malhotra V, Kaur I, Saraswat A et al (2002) Frequency of patch-test positivity in patients with psoriasis: a prospective controlled study. Acta Derm Venereol 82:432–435PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kot M, Bogaczewicz J, Krecisz B, Wozniacka A (2014) Contact hypersensitivity to haptens of the European standard series and corticosteroid series in the population of adolescents and adults with atopic dermatitis. Dermatitis 25(2):72–76PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hamann C, Hamann D, Egeberg A, Johansen J, Silverberg J, Thyssen J (2017) Association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol 77(1):77–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen JK, Jacob SE, Nedorost ST, Hanifin JM, Simpson EL, Boguniewicz M et al (2016) A pragmatic approach to patch testing atopic dermatitis patients: clinical recommendations based on expert consensus opinion. Dermatitis 27(4):186–192PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pinho A, Marta A, Coutinho I, Gonçalo M (2017) Long-term reproducibility of positive patch test reactions in patients with non-immediate cutaneous adverse drug reactions to antibiotics. Contact Dermatitis 76(4):204–209PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gonçalo M (2014) Contact urticaria syndrome induced by drugs. In: Giménez-Arnau A, Maibach H (eds) Contact urticaria syndrome. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 155–164Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gonçalo M, Giménez-Arnau A (2015) Drug photosensitivity. In: Katsambas AD, Lotti TM, Dessinioti C, D’Erme AM (eds) European handbook of dermatological treatments, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 233–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Faria A, Gonçalo S, Gonçalo M, Freitas C, Baptista PP (1996) Allergic contact dermatitis from tioconazole. Contact Dermatitis 35(4):250–252PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Santiago L, Moura AL, Coutinho I, Gonçalo M (2018) Systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with topical diltiazem and/or cinchocaine. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 32:e284PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Opstrup M, Guldager S, Zachariae C, Thyssen J (2017) Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by diltiazem. Contact Dermatitis 76(6):364–365PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Matos-Pires E, Pina-Trincão D, Brás S, Lobo L (2018) Baboon syndrome caused by anti-haemorrhoidal ointment. Contact Dermatitis 78(2):170–171PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Marques C, Faria E, Machado A, Gonçalo M, Gonçalo S (1995) Allergic contact dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis from cinchocaine. Contact Dermatitis 33(6):443PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cravo M, Vieira R, Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A (2008) Percutaneous inorganic mercury poisoning. Med Cutan Ibero Lat Am 36(6):296–298Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Corazza M, Borghi A, Gallo R, Schena D, Pigatto P, Lauriola MM et al (2014) Topical botanically derived products: use, skin reactions, and usefulness of patch tests. A multicentre Italian study. Contact Dermatitis 70:90–97PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Neri I, Loi C, Magnano M, Vincenzi C, La Placa M, Patrizi A (2016) Erythema multiforme-like eruption in a 3-year-old boy. Arch Dis Child 101(7):652PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Izu K, Hino R, Isoda H, Nakashima D, Kabashima K, Tokura Y (2008) Photocontact dermatitis to ketoprofen presenting with erythema multiforme. Eur J Dermatol 18:710–713PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hong SJ, Chang CH (2006) Erythema multiforme-like generalized allergic contact dermatitis caused by Alpinia galanga. Contact Dermatitis 54(2):118–120PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Alvarez-Garrido H, Sanz-Muñoz C, Martínez-García G, Miranda-Romero A (2010) Lymphomatoid photocontact dermatitis to benzydamine hydrochloride. Contact Dermatitis 62(2):117–119PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    El Anzi O, Hassam B (2018) Pustular dermatosis of the scalp due to topical minoxidil 5%. Pan Afr Med J 30:83PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Poddighe D, Brazzelli V, Licari A, Marseglia GL (2016) Acute pustular dermatosis, following topical treatment with pimecrolimus, in a child affected with atopic and contact hand dermatitis. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 21(1):81–84PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Romita P, Ettorre G, Corazza M, Borghi A, Foti C (2017) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by clindamycin mimicking ‘retinoid flare’. Contact Dermatitis 77(3):181–182PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    González-Cantero A, Gatica-Ortega M-E, Pastor-Nieto M-A, Martínez-Lorenzo E-R, Gómez-Dorado B, Mollejo-Villanueva M et al (2019) Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis-like (AGEP-like) contact dermatitis from topical therapy in a polysensitized patient. Contact Dermatitis 80:329PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cardoso JC, Canelas MM, Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A (2009) Photopatch testing with an extended series of photoallergens: a 5-year study. Contact Dermatitis 60(6):325–329PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bibas N, Sartor V, Bulai Livideanu C, Bagheri H, Nougué J, Giordano-Labadie F et al (2012) Contact photoallergy to isothipendyl chlorhydrate. Dermatology 224(4):289–291PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kerr A, Woods J, Ferguson J (2008) Photocontact allergic and phototoxic studies of chlorproethazine. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 24(1):11–15PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Barbaud A, Collet E, Martin S, Granel F, Tréchot P, Lambert D et al (2001) Contact sensitization to chlorproéthazine can induce persistent light reaction and cross photoreactions to other phenothiazines. Contact Dermatitis 44:373PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    LeCoz C, Bottlaender A, Scrivener J-N, Santinelli F, Cribier B, Heidei E et al (1998) Photocontact dermatitis from ketoprofen and tiaprofenic acid: cross-reactivity study in 12 consecutive patients. Contact Dermatitis 38:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Arias-Santiago S, Fernandéz-Pugnaire M, Anamzán-Fernandéz F, Serrano-Franco C, Serrano-Ortega S (2009) Phytophotodermatitis due to Ruta graveolens prescribed for fibromyalgia. Rheumatology 48(11):1401PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    European Multicentre Photopatch Test Study (EMCPPTS) Taskforce, Kerr A, Ferguson J, Haylett A, Rhodes L, Adamski H et al (2012) A European multicentre photopatch test study. Br J Dermatol 166(5):1002–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kerr A, Ferguson J (2010) Photoallergic contact dermatitis. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 26(2):56–65PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gonçalo M, Ferguson J, Bonevalle A, Bruynzeel DP, Giménez-Arnau A, Goossens A et al (2013) Photopatch testing: recommendations for a European photopatch test baseline series. Contact Dermatitis 68(4):239–243PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Barbaud A (2001) Urticaires de contact. Ann Dermatol Vénéreol 128:1161–1165PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nakonechna A, Dore P, Dixon T, Khan S, Deacock S, Holding S et al (2014) Immediate hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine is increasingly recognised in the United Kingdom. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 42(1):44–9PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Krautheim A, Jermann T, Bircher A (2004) Chlorhexidine anaphylaxis: case report and review of the litterature. Contact Dermatitis 50:113–116PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Saito M, Nakada T (2013) Contact urticaria syndrome from eye drops: levofloxacin hydrate ophthalmic solution. J Dermatol 40(2):130–131PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Park M-R, Kim D-S, Kim J, Ahn K (2013) Anaphylaxis to topically applied sodium fusidate. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 5(2):110–112PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Waton J, Boulanger A, Trechot PH, Schmutz JL, Barbaud A (2004) Contact urticaria from Emla cream. Contact Dermatitis 51(5–6):284–287PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gonçalo M, Gonçalo S, Moreno A (1987) Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity to chlorocresol. Contact Dermatitis 17(1):46–47PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kulberg A, Schliemann S, Elsner P (2014) Contact dermatitis as a systemic disease. Clin Dermatol 32(3):414–419PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Thyssen J, Maibach H (2008) Drug-elicited systemic allergic (contact) dermatitis – update and possible pathomechanisms. Contact Dermatitis 59(4):195–202PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Winnicki M, Shear N (2011) A systematic approach to systemic contact dermatitis and symmetric drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE): a closer look at these conditions and an approach to intertriginous eruptions. Am J Clin Dermatol 12(3):171–180PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Williamson D, Carter G, Howdena B (2017) Current and emerging topical antibacterials and antiseptics: agents, action, and resistance patterns. Clin Microbiol Rev 30(3):827–860PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Oosterhaven J, Uter W, Aberer W, Armario-Hita J, Ballmer-Weber B, Bauer A et al (2019) European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA): contact allergies in relation to body sites in patients with allergic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 80:263–272PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Elliott J, Abbas M, Hull P, de Gannes G, Toussi R, Milani A (2016) Decreasing rates of neomycin sensitization in Western Canada. J Cutan Med Surg 20(5):446–452PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Madsen JT, Andersen KE (2012) Outcome of a second patch test reading of TRUE Tests® on D6/7. Contact Dermatitis 68:94–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gilissen L, De Decker L, Hulshagen T, Goossens A (2019) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical ophthalmic medications: keep an eye on it! Contact Dermatitis 80(5):291–297PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Thomas B, Kulichova D, Wolf R, Summer B, Mahler V (2015) High frequency of contact allergy to implant and bone cement components, in particular gentamicin, in cemented arthroplasty with complications: usefulness of late patch test reading. Contact Dermatitis 73:343–349PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lippo J, Lammintausta K (2008) Positive patch test reactions to gentamicin show sensitization to aminoglycosides from topical therapies, bone cements, and from systemic medications. Contact Dermatitis 59:286–272Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Alfalah M, Zargham H, Moreau L, Stanciu M, Sasseville D (2016) Contact allergy to polymyxin B among patients referred for patch testing. Dermatitis 27(3):119–122PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dekoven JG, Warshaw EM, Belsito DV, Sasseville D, Maibach HI, Taylor JS et al (2017) North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch test results 2013–2014. Dermatitis 28(1):33–46PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sood A, Taylor J (2003) Bacitracin: allergen of the year. Am J Contact Dermat 14:3–4PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gehrig K, Warshaw E (2008) Allergic contact dermatitis to topical antibiotics: epidemiology, responsible allergens, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol 58:1–21PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Knowles SR, Shear NH (1995) Anaphylaxis from bacitracin and polymyxin B (Polysporin) ointment. Int J Dermatol 34(8):572–573PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Caraballo J, Binkley E, Han I, Dowden A (2017) Intraoperative anaphylaxis to bacitracin during scleral buckle surgery. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 119(6):559–560PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    De Castro Martinez F, Ruiz F, Tornero P, De Barrio M, Prieto A (2006) Systemic contact dermatitis due to fusidic acid. Contact Dermatitis 54(3):169PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Veraldi S, Guanziroli E, Ferrucci S, Nazzaro G (2019) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by clindamycin. Contact Dermatitis 80:68–69PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Foti C, Romita P, Borghi A, Angelini G, Bonamonte D, Corazza M (2015) Contact dermatitis to topical acne drugs: a review of the literature. Dermatol Ther 28(5):323–329PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Zhang AJ, Warshaw EM (2019) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by mupirocin and pimecrolimus. Contact Dermatitis 80:132–133PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Assier H, Hirsch G, Wolkenstein P, Chosidow O (2019) Severe contact allergy to mupirocin in a polysensitized patient. Contact Dermatitis 80:397PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schram SE, Warshaw EM (2010) Retapamulin: an emerging antimicrobial allergen. Dermatitis 21(3):160–161PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Romita P, Stingeni L, Hansel K, Ettorre G, Bosco A, Ambrogio F et al (2019) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by chloramphenicol with prurigo nodularis-like spreading. Contact Dermatitis 80(4):251–252PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    García A, Rodríguez-Martín A, Serra Baldrich E, Manubens Mercade E, Puig Sanz L (2016) Allergic contact dermatitis to silver in a patient treated with silver sulphadiazine after a burn. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 30(2):365–366PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ozkaya E, Kiliç S (2018) Polyethylene glycol as marker for nitrofurazone allergy: 20 years of experience from Turkey. Contact Dermatitis 78:211–215PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wilkinson M, Gallo R, Goossens A, Johansen J, Rustemeyer T, Sánchez-Pérez J et al (2018) A proposal to create an extension to the European baseline series. Contact Dermatitis 78(2):101–108PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wilkinson M, Gonçalo M, Aerts O, Badulici S, Bennike NH, Bruynzeel D et al (2019) The European baseline series and recommended additions: 2019. Contact Dermatitis 80(1):1–4PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pinheiro V, Pestana C, Pinho A, Antunes I, Gonçalo M (2018) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by antibiotics in healthcare workers – relationship with non-immediate drug eruptions. Contact Dermatitis 78(4):281–286PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Antunes J, Silva R, Pacheco D, Travassos R, Filipe P (2011) Occupational contact allergy to cephalosporins. Dermatol Online J 17(5):13PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kim J-E, Kim S-H, Jin H-J, Hwang E-K, Kim J-H, Ye Y-M et al (2012) IgE sensitization to cephalosporins in health care workers. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 4(2):85–91PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Le Corre Y, Barbarot S, Frot A, Milpied B (2010) Allergic contact dermatitis to chlorhexidine in a very young child. Pediatr Dermatol 27(5):485–487PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Darrigade A, Léauté-Labrèze C, Boralevi F, Taıeb A, Milpied B (2018) Allergic contact reaction to antiseptics in very young children. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 32(12):2284–2287PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bervoets A, Aerts O (2016) Polyhexamethylene biguanide in wound care products: a non-negligible cause of peri-ulcer dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 74(1):53–55PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schunter J, Stöcker B, Brehler R (2017) A case of severe anaphylaxis to polyhexanide: cross-reactivity between biguanide antiseptics. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 173(4):233–236PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kumata S, Watanabe R, Yamada T, Matsuoka T, Nagai S, Ueda M et al (2019) Dermatitis caused by Olanedine (olanexidine gluconate) and povidone iodine. Contact Dermatitis 80(4):239–241PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Shutty B, Scheinman P (2017) Occupationally induced allergic contact dermatitis to aerosolized quaternary ammonium. Dermatitis 28(6):369PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hülsemann W, Habenicht R (2009) Scwere Nebenwirkungen nach Octenisept®-Spülung von Perforationswunden in Kindesalter. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 41(5):277–282PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Schmitt R, Haller H, Hiss M (2012) Erythematous rash around peritoneal dialysis catheter exit site. Am J Kidney Dis 60(3):A29–A31PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    de la Cuadra-Oyanguren J, Zaragozá-Ninet V, Sierra-Talamantes C, Alegre de Miquel V (2014) Postsurgical contact dermatitis due to povidone iodine: a diagnostic dilemma. Actas Dermosifiliogr 105(3):300–304PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Borrego L, Hernández N, Hernández Z, Peñate Y (2016) Povidone-iodine induced post-surgical irritant contact dermatitis localized outside of the surgical incision area. Report of 27 cases and a literature review. Int J Dermatol 55(5):540–545PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A, Gonçalo S (1996) Hypersensitivity to thimerosal: the sensitizing moiety. Contact Dermatitis 34(3):201–203PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pérez-Mesonero R, Schneller-Pavelescu L, Ochando-Ibernón G, Vergara-Sánchez A, Sánchez-Herreros C, Martín-Alcalde E et al (2019) Is tioconazole contact dermatitis still a concern? Bringing allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical tioconazole back into the spotlight. Contact Dermatitis 80(3):168–169PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hirohata A, Hanafusa T, Mabuchi-kiyohara E, Ikegami R (2015) Contact dermatitis caused by efinaconazole solution for treatment of onychomycosis. Contact Dermatitis 73(3):190–192PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Oiso N, Tatebayashi M, Kawada A (2016) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by efinaconazole: positive patch test reactions up to 0.1% pet. Contact Dermatitis 76:53–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Stingeni L, Bruze M, Antelmi A (2019) Sensitivity to imidazoles/nitroimidazoles in subjects sensitized to methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone: a simple coincidence? Contact Dermatitis 80(3):181–183PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Fidalgo A, Lobo I (2004) Allergic contact dermatitis due to amorolfine nail lacquer. Dermatitis 15(1):54PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pérez-Varela L, Goday-Buján J, Piñeyro-Molina F, Costa-Domínguez C (2010) Allergic contact dermatitis due to amorolfine in nail lacquer. Actas Dermosifiliogr 101(3):281–283PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Corazza M, Lauriola M, Virgili A (2005) Allergic contact dermatitis to naftifine. Contact Dermatitis 53(5):302PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Koch A, Tchernev G, Wollina U (2017) Allergic maculo-papular exanthema due to terbinafine. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 20(5):535–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Chiriac A, Chiriac A, Pinteala T, Moldovan C, Stolnicu S (2017) Allergic contact dermatitis from topical acyclovir: case series. J Emerg Med 52(2):e37–e39PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Nino M, Balato N, Di Costanzo L, Gaudiello F (2009) Scratch-patch test for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis to aciclovir. Contact Dermatitis 60(1):56–57PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Serra D, Ramos L, Brinca A, Gonçalo M (2012) Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis associated with acyclovir, confirmed by patch testing. Dermatitis 23(2):99–100PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Vernassiere C, Barbaud A, Trechot P, Weber-Muller F, Schmutz J (2003) Systemic acyclovir reaction subsequent to acyclovir contact allergy: which systemic antiviral drug should then be used? Contact Dermatitis 49(3):155–157PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Veraldi S, De Micheli P, Schianchi R, Pontini P (2018) A new treatment regimen with permethrin in scabies. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 153(4):491–493PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bassi A, D’Erme A, Gola M (2011) Erythema multiforme-like irritant contact dermatitis after application of an antiscabies treatment. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 24(2):545–547PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kaminska R, Mortenhumer M (2003) Nummular allergic contact dermatitis after scabies treatment. Contact Dermatitis 48:337PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hara H, Masuda T, Yokoyama A, Asaki H, Okada T, Suzuki H (2003) Allergic contact dermatitis due to crotamiton. Contact Dermatitis 49(4):219PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Brinca A, Cabral R, Gonçalo M (2013) Contact allergy to local anaesthetics-value of patch testing with a caine mix in the baseline series. Contact Dermatitis 68(3):156–162PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Nguyen HL, Yiannias JA (2019) Contact dermatitis to medications and skin products. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 56:41–59PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Thomas BR, White IR, Mcfadden JP, Banerjee P (2014) Positive relationship – intensity of response to p-phenylenediamine on patch testing and cross-reactions with related allergens. Contact Dermatitis 71:98–101PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    To D, Kossintseva I, de Gannes G (2014) Lidocaine contact allergy is becoming more prevalent. Dermatol Surg 40(12):1367–1372PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Uter W, Spiewak R, Cooper S, Wilkinson M, Sánchez Pérez J, Schnuch A et al (2016) Contact allergy to ingredients of topical medications: results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), 2009–2012. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 25(11):1305–1312PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Thyssen JP, Engkilde K, Menné T, Johansen JD (2011) Prevalence of benzocaine and lidocaine patch test sensitivity in Denmark: temporal trends and relevance. Contact Dermatitis 65(1):76–80PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Garcia-Gavin J, Alonso-González J, Gutierrez-Gonzalez E, Alvarez-Perez A, Fernández-Redondo V, Toribio J (2011) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by tetracaine contained in otic drops. Contact Dermatitis 65(3):175–176PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Ljubojevic-Hadžavdic S, Burnic S, Hadžavdic A, Marinovic Kulišic S, Jurakic Toncic R (2018) Erythema of the penis after use of a latex condom – latex allergy or something else? Contact Dermatitis 78(2):168–169PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Arshdeep DD, Handa S (2015) Does contact allergy to benzocaine cause orodynia? Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 81(1):84–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Caro-Gutiérrez D, Gómez-de la Fuente E, Pampín-Franco A, Ascanio-Armada L, López-Estebaranz J (2015) Systemic contact dermatitis due to amethocaine following digital rectal examination. Dermatol Online J 21(5):pii: 13030/qt8tt1137zGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Opstrup MS, Sørensen HB, Zachariae C (2017) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by tetracaine in an otorhinolaryngologist. Contact Dermatitis 76(1):55–57PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Bruijn M, Lavrijsen A, van Zuuren E (2009) An unusual case of contact dermatitis to procaine. Contact Dermatitis 60(2):182–183PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Corbo MD, Weber E, Dekoven J (2016) Lidocaine allergy: do positive patch results restrict future use? Dermatitis 27(2):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Halabi-Tawil M, Kechichian E, Tomb R (2016) An unusual complication of minor surgery: contact dermatitis caused by injected lidocaine. Contact Dermatitis 75(4):253–255PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kluger N, Raison-Peyron N, Michot C, Guillot B, Bessis D (2011) Acute bullous irritant contact dermatitis caused by EMLA® cream. Contact Dermatitis 65(3):181–183PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Fellinger C, Wantke F, Hemmer W, Sesztak-greinecker G, Wöhrl S (2013) The rare case of a probably true IgE-mediated allergy to local anaesthetics. Case Rep Med 2013:201586PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Vatti RR, Ali F, Teuber S, Chang C, Gershwin ME (2014) Hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 47(1):26–37PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Otani IM, Banerji A (2016) Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids: evaluation and management. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 13(3):18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Santos-Alarcón S, Benavente-Villegas F, Farzanegan-Miñano R, Pérez-Francés C, Sánchez-Motilla J, Mateu-Puchades A (2018) Delayed hypersensitivity to topical and systemic corticosteroids. Contact Dermatitis 78(1):86–88PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Faber MA, Sabato V, Ebo DGD, Verheyden M, Lambert J, Aerts O (2015) Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by prednisone derivatives in nose and eardrops. Contact Dermatitis 73(5):317–320PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ljubojevic S, Lipozencic J, Basta-Juzbasic A (2011) Contact allergy to corticosteroids and Malassezia furfur in seborrhoeic dermatitis patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 25(6):647–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Browne F, Wilkinson S (2011) Effective prescribing in steroid allergy: controversies and cross-reactions. Clin Dermatol 29(3):287–294PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Pratt MD, Mufti A, Lipson J, Warshaw EM, Maibach HI, Taylor JS, Sasseville D, DeKoven JG, Zirwas MJ, Fransway AF, Mathias CG, Zug KA, DeLeo VA, Fowler JF Jr, Marks JG, Storrs FJ, Belsito DV (2017) Patch test reactions to corticosteroids: retrospective analysis from the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 2007–2014. Dermatitis 28(1):58–63PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Vind-Kezunovic D, Johansen JD, Carlsen BC (2011) Prevalence of and factors influencing sensitization to corticosteroids in a Danish patch test population. Contact Dermatitis 64(6):325–329PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Baeck M, Marot L, Nicolas J-F, Pilette C, Tennstedt D, Goossens A (2009) Allergic hypersensitivity to topical and systemic corticosteroids: a review. Allergy 64:978–994PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Opstrup MS, Garvey LH, Johansen JD, Bregnbak DK, Thyssen JP (2017) A contact allergic reaction to budesonide mimicking immediate-type allergy. Contact Dermatitis 77:62–63PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    D’Erme A, Gola M (2012) Allergic contact dermatitis induced by topical hydrocortisone-17-butyrate mimicking papular rosacea. Dermatitis 23(2):95–96PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Mercader-García P, Pastor-Nieto MA, García-Doval I, Giménez-Arnau A, González-Pérez R, Fernández-Redondo V et al (2017) Are the Spanish baseline series markers sufficient to detect contact allergy to corticosteroids in Spain? A GEIDAC prospective study. Contact Dermatitis 78(1):76–82PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Foti C, Rigano L, Lionetti N, Lisi P, Stingeni L, Romita P et al (2011) Investigation of new vehicles to patch test corticosteroids: our experience with ethoxydiglycol to detect contact allergy to hydrocortisone butyrate. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 25(4):683–688PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Baeck M, Chemelle J-A, Terreux R, Drieghe J, Goossens A (2009) Delayed hypersensitivity to corticosteroids in a series of 315 patients: clinical data and patch test. Contact Dermatitis 61(1):163–175PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Isaksson M (2007) Corticosteroid contact allergy – the importance of late readings and testing with corticosteroids used by the patients. Contact Dermatitis 56(1):56–57PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Baker A, Empson M, The R, Fitzharris P (2015) Skin testing for immediate hypersensitivity to corticosteroids: a case series and literature review. Clin Exp Allergy 45(3):669–676PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Kreeshan FC, Hampton P (2015) Delayed hypersensitivity reaction to intralesional triamcinolone acetonide following treatment for alopecia areata. Intradermal testing. J Dermatol Case Rep 9(4):107–109PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Soria A, Baeck M, Goossens A, Marot L, Duveille V, Derouuaux A-S et al (2011) Patch, prick or intradermal tests to detect delayed hypersensitivity to corticosteroids? Contact Dermatitis 64:313–324PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Baeck M, Goossens A (2012) Immediate and delayed allergic hypersensitivity to corticosteroids: practical guidelines. Contact Dermatitis 66(1):38–45PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Berl V, Claudel E, Gerberick G, Lepoittevin J (2008) Allergic contact dermatitis to corticosteroids: a mechanistic study. Contact Dermatitis 58(Suppl 1):10Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Salava A, Alanko K, Hyry H (2012) A case of systemic allergic dermatitis caused by inhaled budesonide: cross-reactivity in patch tests with the novel inhaled corticosteroid ciclesonide. Contact Dermatitis 67(4):244–246PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Baeck M, Chemelle J, Rasse C, Terreux R, Goossens A (2011) C16-methyl corticosteroids are far less allergenic than the non-methylated molecules. Contact Dermatitis 64:305–312PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Baeck M, Chemelle JA, Goossens A, Nicolas JF, Terreux R (2011) Corticosteroid cross-reactivity: clinical and molecular modelling tools. Allergy [Internet] 66(10):1367–1374. [cited 2013 Aug 21]. Scholar
  159. 159.
    Nguyen T, Razzaque Ahmed A (2016) Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: update and insights. Autoimmun Rev 15(2):191–197PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Leroy A, Baeck M, Tennstedt D (2011) Contact dermatitis and secondary systemic allergy to dimethindene maleate. Contact Dermatitis 64:170–171PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Teixeira V, Cabral R, Gonçalo M (2014) Exuberant connubial allergic contact dermatitis from diphenhydramine. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 33(1):82PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Winther AH, Andersen KE, Mortz CG (2015) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by mepyramine in topical products. Contact Dermatitis 73(4):255–256PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Yamadori Y, Oiso N, Hirao A, Kawara S, Kawada A (2009) Allergic contact dermatitis from dibucaine hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate, and naphazoline hydrochloride in an over-the-counter topical antiseptic. Contact Dermatitis 62:52–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Parente G, Pazzaglia M, Vincenzi C, Tosti A (1999) Contact dermatitis from pheniramine maleate in eyedrops. Contact Dermatitis 40(6):338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Bonnel R, La Grenade L, Karwoski C, Beitz J (2003) Allergic contact dermatitis from topical doxepin: Food and Drug Administration’s postmarketing surveillance experience. J Am Acad Dermatol 48(2):294–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Brancaccio R, Weinstein S (2003) Systemic contact dermatitis to doxepin. J Drugs Dermatol 2(4):409–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    McEnery-Stonelake M, Silvestri D (2014) Contact allergens in oral antihistamines. Dermatitis 25(2):83–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Sarkany R (2012) Photopatch testing comes of age. Br J Dermatol 166(5):912–913PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hindsén M, Zimerson E, Bruze M (2006) Photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen in Southern Sweden. Contact Dermatitis 54:150–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Maurel D, Durand-Moreau Q, Pougnet R, Dewitte J, Bensefa-Colas L (2017) Why is occupational photocontact allergic dermatitis caused by ketoprofen rarely reported in the literature? Contact Dermatitis 78(1):92–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Conti R, Bassi A, Difonzo EM, Moretti S, Francalanci S (2012) A case of photoallergic contact dermatitis caused by unusual exposure to ketoprofen. Dermatitis 23(6):295–296PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Aerts O, Goossens A, Bervoets A, Lambert J (2016) Almost missed it! Photo-contact allergy to octocrylene in a ketoprofen-sensitized subject. Dermatitis 27(1):33–34PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Rato M, Gil F, Monteiro AF, Parente J (2018) Fenofibrate photoallergy – relevance of patch and photopatch testing. Contact Dermatitis 78(6):413–414PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Karlsson I, Persson E, Ekebergh A, Mårtensson J, Börje A (2014) Ketoprofen-induced formation of amino acid photoadducts: possible explanation for photocontact allergy to ketoprofen. Chem Res Toxicol 27(7):1294–1303PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Foti C, Bonamonte D, Conserva A, Stingeni L, Lisi P, Lionetti N et al (2008) Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: evaluation of cross-reactivities by a combination of photopatch testing and computerized conformational analysis. Curr Pharm Des 14(27):2833–2839PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Guy R, Kuma H, Nakanishi M (2014) Serious photocontact dermatitis induced by topical ketoprofen depends on the formulation. Eur J Dermatol 24(3):365–371PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Takeshi M, Ebihara T, Maekawa K, Yamamoto K, Higo N (2014) Elimination of ketoprofen from the stratum corneum after topical administration with ketoprofen formulations in human subjects. Int J Pharm 465(1–2):197–201PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Devleeschouwer V, Roelandts R, Garmyn M, Goossens A (2008) Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: results of (photo) patch testing and follow-up of 42 patients. Contact Dermatitis 58:159–166PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Hindsén M, Isaksson M, Persson L, Zimersson E, Bruze M (2004) Photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen induced by drug-contaminated personal objects. J Am Acad Dermatol 50:215–219PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Marmgren V, Hindsén M, Zimerson E, Bruze M (2011) Successful photopatch testing with ketoprofen using one-hour occlusion. Acta Derm Venereol 91(2):131–136PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kiely C, Murphy G (2010) Photoallergic contact dermatitis caused by occupational exposure to the canine non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen. Contact Dermatitis 63(6):364–365PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Orbak Z, Yildirim ZK, Sepetci O, Karakelleoglu C, Alp H (2012) Adverse reaction of topical etofenamate: petechial eruption. West Indian Med J 61(7):767–769PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Villar M, Pagan J, Palacios L, Quiralte J, Ramirez M (2008) Allergic contact dermatitis to etofenamate. Cross-reaction to other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Contact Dermatitis 58:118–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Özkaya E (2016) Patch testing with used and unused personal products: a practical way to show contamination with contact allergens. Contact Dermatitis 75(5):328–330PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Uter W, Schnuch A (2011) EMA revokes marketing authorization for bufexamac. Contact Dermatitis 64(4):235–236PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Nakada T, Matsuzawa Y (2012) Allergic contact dermatitis syndrome from bufexamac for nursing infant. Dermatitis 23(4):185–186PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Harris A, Saikal S, Scurry J, Relic J, Nixon R, Chee P (2019) Severe cutaneous eruptions following the topical use of preparations containing bufexamac: is it time to reconsider its registration in Australia? Australas J Dermatol 60(1):53–56PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Gullin S, Chiriac A (2016) Diclofenac-induced allergic contact dermatitis: a series of four patients. Drug Saf Case Rep 3(1):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Akat PB (2013) Severe photosensitivity reaction induced by topical diclofenac. Indian J Pharmacol 45(4):408–409PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Kowalzick L, Ziegler H (2006) Photoallergic contact dermatitis from topical diclofenac in Solaraze gel. Contact Dermatitis 54(6):348–349PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Fernández-Jorge B, Goday-Buján J, Murga M, Molina FP, Pérez-Varela L, Fonseca E (2009) Photoallergic contact dermatitis due to diclofenac with cross-reaction to aceclofenac: two case reports. Contact Dermatitis 61(4):236–237PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A, Tavares P, Fontes Ribeiro C, Teixeira F, Poiares Baptista A (1992) Photosensitivity to piroxicam: absence of cross reaction with tenoxicam. Contact Dermatitis 27:287–290PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Veraldi S, Brena M, Barbareschi M (2015) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical antiacne drugs. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 8(4):377–381PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Felton S, Orton D, Williams J (2013) Benzoyl peroxide in topical acne preparations: an underreported contact allergen? Dermatitis 24(3):146–147PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Gilissen L, Huygens S, Goossens A (2018) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by calcipotriol. Contact Dermatitis 78(2):139–142PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Shaw DW, Eichenfield LF, Shainhouse T, Maibach HI (2014) Allergic contact dermatitis from tacrolimus. J Am Acad Dermatol 50:962–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Shaw D, Maibach H, Eichenfield L (2007) Allergic contact dermatitis from pimecrolimus in a patient with tacrolimus allergy. J Am Acad Dermatol 56:342–345PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Meijer BUGA, De Waard-van der Spek F (2007) Allergic contact dermatitis because of topical use of 5-fluorouracil. Contact Dermatitis 57:58–60PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Liner K, Brown C, McGirt L (2018) Clinical potential of mechlorethamine gel for the topical treatment of mycosis fungoides-type cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a review on current efficacy and safety data. Drug Des Devel Ther 12:241–254PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Cooper H, Louafi F, Friedmann P (2008) A case of conjugal azathioprine-induced contact hypersensitivity disease. N Engl J Med 359(14):1524–1526PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Pastor-Nieto M, Jiménez-Blázquez E, Sánchez-Herreros C, Belmar-Flores P (2013) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by methyl aminolevulinate. Actas Dermosifiliogr 104(2):168–170PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    García-Rodiño S, Espasandín-Arias M, Suárez-Peñaranda J, Rodríguez-Granados MT, Vázquez-Veiga H, Fernández-Redondo V (2015) Persisting allergic patch test reaction to minoxidil manifested as cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Contact Dermatitis 72:413–416PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Gilissen L, Huygens S, Goossens A (2018) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical herbal remedies: importance of patch testing with the patients’ own products. Contact Dermatitis 78(4):177–184PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Minciullo PL, Calapai G, Miroddi M, Mannucci C, Chinou I, Gangemi S et al (2017) Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products – part 4: Solidago virgaureaVitis vinifera∗. Contact Dermatitis 77:67–87PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Sen P, Ho M, Ng S, Yosipovitch G (2010) Contact dermatitis: a common adverse reaction to topical traditional Chinese medicine. Int J Dermatol 49(11):1255–1260PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Goossens A (2014) Allergic contact dermatitis from the vehicle components of topical pharmaceutical products. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 34(3):663–670PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Ozceker D, Haslak F, Dilek F, Sipahi S, Yucel E, Guler N et al (2018) Contact sensitization in children with atopic dermatitis. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 18:30100–30109Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Uter W, Schnuch A, Geier J (2018) Contact sensitization to lanolin alcohols and Amerchol® L101 – analysis of IVDK data. Contact Dermatitis 78:367–369PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Lalla S, Nguyen H, Chaudhry H, Killian J, Drage L, Davis M et al (2018) Patch testing to propylene glycol: the Mayo Clinic experience. Dermatitis 9(4):200–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Schliemann S, Geier J, Elsner P (2011) Fragrances in topical over-the-counter medicaments – a loophole in EU legislation should be closed. Contact Dermatitis 65(6):367–368PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Musel A, Warshaw E (2006) Cutaneous reactions to transdermal therapeutic systems. Dermatitis 17:109–122PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Bershow A, Warshaw E (2011) Cutaneous reactions to transdermal therapeutic systems. Dermatitis 22(4):193–203PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Huilaja L, Riekki R, Immonen A, Tasanen K (2014) Allergic contact dermatitis from buprenorphine and oral tolerance to other opioid derivatives in three patients. Dermatology 228(2):130–131PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Allain-Veyrac G, Lebreton A, Collonnier C, Jolliet P (2011) First case of symmetric drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) due to rivastigmine? Dermatitis 22(4):193–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Ta V, Chin W, White A (2014) Allergic contact dermatitis to testosterone and estrogen in transdermal therapeutic systems. Dermatitis 25(5):279PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Alfaya T, Gimeno PM, Iglesias AM (2011) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by an ethinylestradiol – norelgestromin transdermal therapeutic system. Contact Dermatitis 64(4):242–244PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Drago S, Imboden R, Schlatter P, Buylaert M, Krähenbühl S, Drewe J (2017) Pharmacokinetics of transdermal etofenamate and diclofenac in healthy volunteers. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 121(5):423–429PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Choi Y, Lee J, Bae I, Ah Y, Ki H, Bae J et al (2011) Titanium dioxide inclusion in backing reduce the photoallergenicity of ketoprofen transdermal patch. Arch Toxicol 85(3):219–226PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Hostynek J, Maibach H, Hostynek JJ, Maibach HI (2010) Fentanyl transdermal patches: overview of cutaneous adverse effects in humans. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 29(4):241–246. Scholar
  220. 220.
    Aschenbeck K, Warshaw E (2017) Periorbital allergic contact dermatitis due to ketotifen. Dermatitis 28(2):164–165PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Wolf R, Orion E, Tüzün Y (2014) Periorbital (eyelid) dermatides. Clin Dermatol 32(1):131–140PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Smets K, Werbrouck J, Goossens A, Gilissen L (2017) Sensitization from ketotifen fumarate in eye drops presenting as chronic conjunctivitis. Contact Dermatitis 76(2):124–126PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Fujiwara Y, Inomata N, Ishida S, Miyakawa M, Nomura Y, Mitani N et al (2017) Contact urticaria syndrome caused by sulfamethoxazole sodium contained in eye drops. Contact Dermatitis 77(1):56–57PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Grey K, Warshaw E (2016) Allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications: relevant allergens and alternative testing methods. Dermatitis 27(6):333–347PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Cumurcu T, Sener S, Cavdar M (2011) Periocular allergic contact dermatitis following topical Mitomycin C eye drop application. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 30(3):239–240PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Monteagudo Paz A-F, Silvestre Salvador J-F, Latorre-Martinez N, Cuest-Montero L, Toledo-Alberola F (2010) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by azithromycin in an eye drop. Contact Dermatitis 64(2):300–301Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Horcajada-Reales C, Rodríguez-Soria VJ, Suárez-Fernández R (2015) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by timolol with cross-sensitivity to levobunolol. Contact Dermatitis 73(6):368–369PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Kusakabe M, Imai Y, Natsuaki M, Yamanishi K (2018) Allergic contact dermatitis due to ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate in eye-drops: a case report. Acta Derm Venereol 98(2):278–279PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Haroun-Díaz E, Ruíz-García M, De Luxán de la Lastra S, Pastor-Vargas C, De las Heras M, Sastre Domínguez J et al (2014) Contact dermatitis to both tropicamide and phenylephrine eye drops. Dermatitis 25(3):149–150PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Baeck M, De Potter P, Goossens A (2011) Allergic contact dermatitis following ocular use of corticosteroids. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 27(1):83–92PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Miyazato H, Yamaguchi S, Taira K, Asato Y, Yamamoto Y, Hagiwara K et al (2011) Allergic contact dermatitis due to diclofenac sodium in eye drops. J Dermatol 38(3):276–279PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Craig S, Urwin R, Wilkinson M (2017) Contact allergy to thioctic acid present in Hypromellose® eye drops. Contact Dermatitis 76(6):361–362PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Mitsuyama S, Abe F, Kimura M, Higuchi T (2017) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by ϵ-aminocaproic acid in a purified sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution. Contact Dermatitis 77(3):191–192PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Veramme J, de Zaeytijd J, Lambert J, Lapeere H (2016) Contact dermatitis in patients undergoing serial intravitreal injections. Contact Dermatitis 74(1):18–21PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Corazza M, Virgili A, Toni G, Minghetti S, Tiengo S, Borghi A (2016) Level of use and safety of botanical products for itching vulvar dermatoses. Are patch tests useful ? Contact Dermatitis 74(2):289–294PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Nasir S, Goldsmith P (2016) Anogenital allergic contact dermatitis caused by methylchloroisothiazolinone, methylisothiazolinone and topical clotrimazole with subsequent generalized exanthem triggered by oral fluconazole. Contact Dermatitis 74(5):296–297PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Calogiuri GF, Nettis E, Di Leo E, Foti C, Ferrannini A, Butani L (2013) Allopurinol hypersensitivity reactions: desensitization strategies and new therapeutic alternative molecules. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 12(1):19–28PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Foti C, Romita P, Ettorre G, Angelini G, Bonamonte D (2016) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by resorcinol and sodium dehydroacetate in a patient with leg ulcers. Contact Dermatitis 74(6):383–384PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Johnson M, Fiskerstrand E (1999) Contact urticaria syndrome due to carboxymethylcellulose in a hydrocolloid. Contact Dermatitis 41:344–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Jaque A, DeKoven JG (2017) Polyhexamethylene biguanide and alkyl glucosides: unexpected allergens in an antimicrobial foam dressing. Contact Dermatitis 77(6):421–422PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Kerre S, Aerts O, Strobbe T, Naessens T, Theunis M, Foubert K (2018) Alkyl glucosides: newly identified allergens in foam wound dressings. Contact Dermatitis 79(3):191–193PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Price A, Stone N, Harding K (2018) An unusual presentation of a common condition: allergic contact dermatitis. Int Wound J 15(4):645–648PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Mestach L, Huygens S, Goossens A, Gilissen L (2018) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylic-based medical dressings and adhesives. Contact Dermatitis 79:81PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    McGowan M, Scheman A, Jacob S (2018) Propylene glycol in contact dermatitis: a systematic review. Dermatitis 29(1):6–12PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Chu GJ, Murad A (2017) A case of ethanol-induced systemic allergic dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 76(3formaldeido):182–184PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Gumaste P, Cohen D, Stein J (2015) Bullous systemic contact dermatitis caused by an intra-articular steroid injection. Br J Dermatol 172(1):300–302PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Vega F, Ramos T, Las Heras P, Blanco C (2016) Concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis. Cutis 97(1):24–27PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Watts TJ (2017) Severe delayed-type hypersensitivity to chloramphenicol with systemic reactivation during intradermal testing. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 118(5):644–645PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Bianchi L, Hansel K, Antonelli E, Bellini V, Rigano L, Stingeni L (2016) Deflazacort hypersensitivity: a difficult-to-manage case of systemic allergic dermatitis and literature review. Contact Dermatitis 75(1):54–56PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Barbaud A, Waton J (2016) Systemic allergy to corticosteroids: clinical features and cross reactivity. Curr Pharm Des 22(45):6825–6831PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Aquino M, Rosner G (2019) Systemic contact dermatitis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 56(1):9–18PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Malki A, Marguery M, Giordano-Labadie F, Konstantinou M, Mokeddem L, Lamant L et al (2017) Systemic allergic contact dermatitis caused by methyl aminolaevulinate in a patient with keratosis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome. Contact Dermatitis 76(3):190–192PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Rosenfield L, Kardassakis D, Tsia K, Stayner G (2014) The first case report of a systemic allergy to onabotulinum toxinA (Botox) in a healthy patient. Aesthet Surg J 34(5):766–768PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Kaae J, Menné T, Thyssen J (2012) Systemic contact dermatitis following oral exposure to tramadol in a patient with allergic contact dermatitis caused by buprenorphine. Contact Dermatitis 66(2):106–107PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Malinauskiene L, Isaksson M, Bruze M (2013) Systemic contact dermatitis in a gold-allergic patient after treatment with an oral homeopathic drug. J Am Acad Dermatol 68(2):e58PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Dehavay F, Kolivras A, Scheers C (2019) Local and systemic adverse skin reactions following the use of herbal products believed to contain Nigella sativa seeds and oil. Contact Dermatitis 80(3):176–177PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Freedman J, Griggs J, De Padova M, Tosti A (2019) What’s the “buzz” about propolis? Propolis-induced systemic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 80(1):65–67PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Meyer M, Watsky K (2015) Systemic contact dermatitis due to flaxseed ingestion. Dermatitis 26(5):241PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Rajan J, Cornell R, White A (2015) A case of systemic contact dermatitis secondary to edetate disodium. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 3(4):607–608PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Kuritzky L, Pratt M (2015) Systemic allergic contact dermatitis after formaldehyde-containing influenza vaccination. J Cutan Med Surg 19(5):504–506PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Veien N, Lomholt H (2012) Systemic allergic dermatitis presumably caused by formaldehyde derived from aspartame. Contact Dermatitis 67(5):315–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Guha-Niyogi B, Sabroe R, Holden C (2018) An unusual case of a systemic delayed hypersensitivity reaction to sodium metabisulfite. Contact Dermatitis 79(4):246–247PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Borges AS, Valejo Coelho MM, Fernandes C, Brasileiro A, Gonçalo M (2018) Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sodium metabisulfite in rectal enemas. Contact Dermatitis 78(6):429–430PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Cressey B, Scheinman P (2012) Systemic allergic dermatitis of the lips resulting from allergy to an antimicrobial agent in a contact lens disinfecting solution. Contact Dermatitis 67(4):239–240PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Burches E, Revert A, Martin J, Iturralde A (2015) Occupational systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sevoflurane. Contact Dermatitis 72(1):62–63PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    De Groot A (2018) Patch testing. Test concentrations and vehicles for 4900 chemicals, 4th edn. AC DE Groot Publishing, WapserveenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dermatology, University HospitalKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Clinic of Dermatology, Coimbra University Hospital, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

Personalised recommendations