Advertisement

Photopatch Testing

  • Margarida GonçaloEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Photopatch testing is a procedure that combines patch testing with UV irradiation. It is primarily indicated to study photoallergic contact dermatitis, but it can also contribute to establish a correct diagnosis of any exposed site dermatitis or systemic drug photosensitivity.

Photopatch testing has been standardized with the input of the European Society of Contact Dermatitis and European Society of Photodermatology, but it is still seldom performed. It consists on the application of two sets of allergens for 1 or 2 days, irradiation of one set at D1 or D2 with 5 J/cm2 of UVA, and readings immediately after irradiation and two or more days thereafter. A European photopatch test baseline and extended series of allergens, including mostly UV filters and topical drugs, particularly NSAIDs, were recommended in 2013. Chemicals causing photoallergy suffer temporal and regional variations, and “historical” photosensitizers not marked in Europe may also be occasionally responsible. Therefore, apart from these series, patients’ own products or other chemicals to which the patient was exposed to should also be considered for testing.

Interpretation of the results is essential as reactions can represent contact allergy, photoallergy, photo-augmented allergic contact dermatitis, or nonspecific phototoxic or irritant reactions.

Keywords

Photopatch test Photoallergy Photoallergic contact dermatitis UV absorbers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 

References

  1. 1.
    Lachapelle J-M (2010) In: SmartPractice (ed) Giant steps in patch testing: a historical memoir, 1st edn. SmartPractice, PhoenixGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bruynzeel DP, Ferguson J, Andersen K, Gonçalo M, English J, Goossens A et al (2004) Photopatch testing: a consensus methodology for Europe. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 18(6):679–682PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gonçalo M, Ferguson J, Bonevalle A, Bruynzeel DP, Giménez-Arnau A, Goossens A et al (2013) Photopatch testing: recommendations for a European photopatch test baseline series. Contact Dermatitis 68(4):239–243PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geier J, Bauer A, Becker D, Brehler R, Breit R (2018) Recommendations for photopatch testing by the Photopatch Test Working Group of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG). J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 16(11):1363–1364PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Naasan H, Dawe R, Moseley H, Ibbotson S (2017) A review of photodiagnostic investigations over 26 years: experience of the National Scottish Photobiology Service (1989–2015). J R Coll Physicians Edinb 47(4):345–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Darvay A, White I, Rycroft R, Jones A, Hawk J, McFadden J (2001) Photoallergic contact dermatitis is uncommon. Br J Dermatol 145:597–601PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pigatto P, Guzzi G, Schena D, Guarrera M, Foti C, Francalanci S et al (2008) Photopatch tests: an Italian multicentre study from 2004 to 2006. Contact Dermatitis 59(2):103–108PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Subiabre-Ferrer D, Blasco-Encinas AE-MR (2018) European photopatch test baseline series: a 3-year experience. Contact Dermatitis 80(August):5–8PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    EMCPPTS Taskforce, Kerr A, Ferguson J, Haylett A, Rhodes L, Adamski H et al (2012) A European multicentre photopatch test study. Br J Dermatol 166(5):1002–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marmgren V, Hindsén M, Zimerson E, Bruze M (2011) Successful photopatch testing with ketoprofen using one-hour occlusion. Acta Derm Venereol 91(2):131–136PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Snyder M, Turrentine JE, Cruz PD (2019) Photocontact dermatitis and its clinical mimics: an overview for the allergist. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 56:32–40PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Canelas MM, Cardoso JC, Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A (2010) Photoallergic contact dermatitis from benzydamine presenting mainly as lip dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 63(2):85–88PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Infante Hernando L, Serra-Baldrich E, Dordal T, Puig SL (2013) Photoallergic contact dermatitis caused by benzophenones in magazine inks. Contact Dermatitis 69(2):124–126PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tanahashi T, Saski K, Numata M, Matsunaga K (2019) Three cases of photoallergic contact dermatitis induced by benzophenone in amusement park wristbands. Contact Dermatitis 80(3):191–193PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goossens A (2004) Photoallergic contact dermatitis. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 20:121–125PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fernández-Jorge B, Buján J, Paradela S, Mazaira M, Fonseca E (2008) Consort contact dermatitis from piketoprofen. Contact Dermatitis 58:113–115PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cardoso JC, Canelas MM, Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A (2009) Photopatch testing with an extended series of photoallergens: a 5-year study. Contact Dermatitis 60(6):325–329PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Monteagudo-Paz A, Salvador JS, Martinez NL, Granados PA, Martínez PS (2011) Pulpitis as clinical presentation of photoallergic contact dermatitis due to chlorpromazine. Allergy 66(11):1503–1504PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Agudo-Mena JL, Romero-Pérez D, Encabo-Durán B, Álvarez-Chinchilla PJ, Silvestre-Salvador JF (2017) Photoallergic contact dermatitis caused by quinidine sulfate in a caregiver. Contact Dermatitis 77(2):131–132PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aerts O, Goossens A, Marguery MC, Castelain M, Boursault L, Giordano-Labadie F et al (2018) Photoaggravated allergic contact dermatitis and transient photosensitivity caused by methylisothiazolinone. Contact Dermatitis 78(4):241–245PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Trokoudes D, Banerjee P, Fityan A, Sarkany R, White IR, White JM et al (2017) Photoaggravated contact dermatitis caused by methylisothiazolinone. Contact Dermatitis 76(5):303–304PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gonçalo M, Ruas E, Figueiredo A, Gonçalo S (1995) Contact and photocontact sensitivity to sunscreens. Contact Dermatitis 33(4):278–280. Wiley Online LibraryPubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Emmert B, Schauder S, Palm H, Haliier E, Emmert S (2007) Disabling work-related persistent photosensitivity following photoallergic contact dermatitis from chlorpromazine and olaquindox in a pig breeder. Ann Agric Environ Med 14:329PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A, Tavares P, Fontes Ribeiro C, Teixeira F, Poiares BA (1992) Photosensitivity to piroxicam: absence of cross reaction with tenoxicam. Contact Dermatitis 27:287–290PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Varela P, Amorim I, Massa A, Sanches M, Silva E (1998) Piroxicam-beta-cyclodextrin and photosensitivity reactions. Contact Dermatitis 38(4):229PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Serra D, Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A (2008) Two decades of cutaneous adverse drug reactions from piroxicam. Contact Dermatitis 58(S1):35Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gutiérrez-gonzález E, Rodríguez-pazos L, Rodríguez-granados MT, Toribio J (2011) Photosensitivity induced by naproxen. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 27:338–340PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Oliveira HS, Gonçalo M, Figueiredo AC (2000) Photosensitivity to lomefloxacin. A clinical and photobiological study. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 16(3):116–120PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kimura M, Kawada A (1998) Photosensitivity induced by lomefloxacin with cross-photosensitivity to ciprofloxacin and fleroxacin. Contact Dermatitis 38(3):180PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kurumajin Y, Shono M (1992) Scarified photopatch testing in lomefloxacin photosensitivity. Contact Dermatitis 26:5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yoshimoto E, Konishi M, Takahashi K, Murukawa K, Maeda K, Mikasa K et al (2004) The first case of efavirenz-induced photosensitivity in a Japanese patient with HIV infection. Intern Med 43:630–631PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Verma R, Vasudevan B, Shankar S, Pragasam V, Suwal B, Venugopal R (2012) First reported case of tenofovir-induced photoallergic reaction. Indian J Pharm 44(5):651–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tsai K, Yang J, Hung S (2017) Fenofibrate-induced photosensitivity – a case series and literature review. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 33:213–219PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gómez-Bernal S, Álvarez-Pérez A, Rodríguez-Pazos L, Gutiérrez-González E, Rodríguez-Granados MT, Toribio J (2014) Fotosensibilidad por tiazidas. Actas Dermosifiliogr 105(4):359–366. AEDVPubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Park M, Shim W, Kim J, Kim G, Kim H, Ko H et al (2017) Pirfenidone-induced photo-allergic reaction in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 33:209–212PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vilaplana J, Romaguera C, Azón A, Lecha M (1990) Flutamide photosensitivity-residual vitiliginous lesions. Contact Dermatitis 38(2):68–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gonçalo M, Domingues J, Correia O, Figueiredo A (1999) Fotossensibilidad a flutamida. Bol Inf GEIDC 29:45–48Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Martín-Lázaro J, Buján J, Arrondo A, Galindo E, Capdevilla E (2004) Is photopatch testing useful in the investigation of photosensitivity due to flutamide? Contact Dermatitis 50:325–326PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Romita P, Foti C, Stingeni L (2017) Photoallergy to promazine hydrochloride. Contact Dermatitis 77(3):182–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lee A, Joo H, Chey W, Kim Y (2001) Photopatch testing in seven cases of photosensitive drug eruptions. Ann Pharmacother 35:1584–1587PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gonçalo M (1998) Explorations dans les photo-allergies médicamenteuses. In: GERDA (ed) Progrès en Dermato-allergologie. John Libbey Eurotext, Nancy, pp 67–74Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Glatz M, Hofbauer GFL (2012) Phototoxic and photoallergic cutaneous drug reactions. Chem Immunol Allergy 97:167–179PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sommer M, Trautmann A, Stoevesandt J (2015) Relief of photoallergy: atorvastatin replacing simvastatin. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 25(2):138–140PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Karimian-Teherani D, Kinaciyan T, Tanew A (2008) Photoallergic contact dermatitis from Heracleum giganteum. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 24:99–101PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Möller H (1990) Contact and photocontact allergy to psoralens. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 7:43–44PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ljunggren B (1977) Psoralen photoallergy caused by plant contact. Contact Dermatitis 3:85–90PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gonçalo S, Correia C, Couto J, Gonçalo M (1989) Contact and photocontact dermatitis from Ruta chalepensis. Contact Dermatitis 21(3):200–201PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Seto Y, Ohtake H, Kato M, Onoue S (2015) Phototoxic risk assessments on benzophenone derivatives: photobiochemical assessments and dermal cassette-dosing pharmacokinetic study. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 354(2):195–202PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Leroy D, Dompmartin A, Szczurko C, Michel M, Louvet S (1997) Photodermatitis from ketoprofen with cross-reactivity to fenofibrate and benzophenones. Photoderm Photoimmunol Photomed 13(3):93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Karlsson I, Vanden Broecke K, Martensson J, Goossens A, Borje A (2011) Clinical and experimental studies of octocrylene’s allergenic potency. Contact Dermatitis 64(6):343–352PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    De Groot AC, Roberts DW (2014) Contact and photocontact allergy to octocrylene: a review. Contact Dermatitis 70(4):193–204PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stoebner P, Rahmoun M, Ferrand C, Meunier L, Yssel H, Pène J (2006) A single sub-erythematous exposure of solar-simulated radiation on the elicitation phase of contact hypersensitivity induces IL-10-producing T-regulatory cells in human skin. Exp Dermatol 15:615–624PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shaw D, Zhai H, Maibach H, Niklasson B (2002) Dosage considerations in patch testing with liquid allergens. Contact Dermatitis 47:86–90PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bruze M, Isaksson M, Gruvberger B, Frick-Engfeldt M (2007) Recommendation of appropriate amounts of petrolatum preparation to be applied at patch testing. Contact Dermatitis 56:281–285PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Johansen J, Aalto-Korte K, Agner T, Andersen K, Bircher A, Bruze M et al (2015) European Society of Contact Dermatitis guideline for diagnostic patch testing – recommendations on best practice. Contact Dermatitis 73(4):195–221PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Avenel-Audrun M (2009) Photopatch testing. Ann Dermatol Vénéreol 136:626–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pollock B, Wilkinson SM (2001) Photopatch test method: influence of type of irradiation and value of day-7 reading. Contact Dermatitis 44(5):270–272PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fujimoto N, Danno K, Wakabayashi M, Uenishi T, Tanaka T (2009) Photosensitivity with eosinophilia due to ambroxol and UVB. Contact Dermatitis 60:110–113PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Asemota E, Crawford G, Kovarik C, Brod BA (2017) A survey examining photopatch test and phototest methodologies of contact dermatologists in the United States: platform for developing a consensus. Dermatitis 28(4):265–269PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A (1992) Photopatch testing with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In: Proceedings of the 1st European symposium of contact dermatitis, Brussels, p 25Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Neumann N, Holzle E, Plewig G, Schwatz T, Pannizzon R, Breit R et al (2000) Photopatchtesting: the 12-year experience of the german, Austrian and swiss photopatch test group. J Am Acad Dermatol 42:183–192PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Duguid C, O’Sullivan D, Murphy G (1993) Determination of threshold UV-A elicitation dose in photopatch testing. Contact Dermatitis 29:192–194PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Duhovic C, Reckling C (2018) Detecting photoallergic contact dermatitis with patch testing and daylight. Contact Dermatitis 78(1):85–86PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wee JS, White JML, Mcfadden JP, White IR (2010) Patch testing in patients treated with systemic immunosuppression and cytokine inhibitors. Contact Dermatitis 62(3):165–169PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Suresh R, Murase JE (2018) The role of expanded series patch testing in identifying causality of residual facial dermatitis following initiation of dupilumab therapy. JAAD Case Rep 4(9):899–904. Elsevier IncPubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Koch K (2017) Photosensitive disorders in HIV. South Afr J HIV Med 18(1):2–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Curr N, Nixon R (2006) Allergic contact dermatitis to basic red 46 occurring in an HIV-positive patient. Australas J Dermatol 47:195–197PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Isaacs T, Ngwanya MR, Dlamini S, Lehloenya RJ (2013) Annular erythema and photosensitivity as manifestations of efavirenz-induced cutaneous reactions: a review of five consecutive cases. J Antimicrob Chemother 68(12):2871–2874PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Beattie P, Traynor N, Woods J, Dawe R, Ferguson J, Ibbotson S (2004) Can a positive photopatch test be elicited by subclinical irritancy or allergy plus suberythemal UV exposure? Contact Dermatitis 51:235–240PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gonçalo M, Giménez-Arnau AM. Drug photosensitivity. 3. Katsambas A, Lotti T, Dessinioti C, D’Erme A. European handbook of dermatological treatments. Berlin: Springer; 2015. 233–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Drucker AM, Rosen CF (2011) Drug-induced photosensitivity culprit drugs. Manag Prev Drug Saf 34(10):821–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Collins P, Ferguson J (1994) Photoallergic contact dermatitis to oxybenzone. Br J Dermatol 131:124–129PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Horio T (1975) Chlorpromazine photoallergy. Coexistence of immediate and delayed type. Arch Dermatol 111:1469–1471PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lovell C, Cronin E, Rhodes E (1986) Photocontact urticaria from chlorpromazine. Contact Dermatitis 14:290–291PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Yokoyama S, Nakano H, Nishizawa A, Kaneko T, Harada K, Hanada K (2015) A case of photocontact urticaria induced by photodynamic therapy with topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid. J Dermatol 32(10):843–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Neumann N, Holzle E, Lehmann P, Benedikter S, Tapernoux B, Plewig G (1994) Patterns analysis of photopatch test reactions. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 16:65–73Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kerr A, Niklasson B, Dawe R, Escoffier A, Krasteva M, Sanderson B et al (2009) A double-blind, randomized assessment of the irritant potential of sunscreen chemical dilutions used in photopatch testing. Contact Dermatitis 60:203–209PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gonçalo M (2016) Photoreactions and phototesting. In: Johansen JD, Lepoittevin J-P, Thyssen JP (eds) Quick guide to contact dermatitis. Springer, Berlin, pp 4–7Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Aerts O, Medear K, Veramnder E, Matthieu L, Lambert J (2012) Contact allergy with photoaggravation caused by a plaster containing ketoprofen. Contact Dermatitis 66(S2):18–19Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Girardin P, Vigan M, Humbert P, Aubin F (2006) Cross reactions in patch testing with ketoprofen, fragrance mix and cinnamic derivatives. Contact Dermatitis 55(2):126–128PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Andersen K, Goossens A (2006) Decyl glucoside contact allergy from a sunscreen product. Contact Dermatitis 54:349–350PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pereira N, Coutinho I, Andrade P, Gonçalo M (2013) The UV filter Tinosorb M, containing decyl glucoside, is a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Dermatitis 24(1):41–43PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A, Gonçalo S (1996) Hypersensitivity to thimerosal: the sensitizing moiety. Contact Dermatitis 34(3):201–203PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Berne B, Ros A-M (1998) 7 years experience of photopatch testing with sunscreen allergens in Sweden. Contact Dermatitis 38:61–64PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bryden A, Moseley H, Ibbotson S, Chowdhury M, Beck M, Bourke J et al (2006) Photopatch testing of 1115 patients: results of the U.K. multicentre photopatch study group. Brit J Dermatol 155:737–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Leonard F, Adamski H, Bonnevalle A, Bottlaender A, Bourrain J, Goujon-Henry G et al (2005) Étude prospective multicentrique 1991–2001 de la batterie standard des photopatch-tests de la Société Française de Photodermatologie. Ann Dermatol Vénéreol 132:313–320PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    La Cuadra-Oyanguren J, Pérez-Ferriols A, Lecha-Carralero M, Giménez-Arnau A, Fernández-Redondo V, Ortiz de Frutos F et al (2007) Results and assessment of photopatch testing in Spain: towards a new standard set of photoallergens. Actas Dermosifiliogr 98:96–101PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bakkum R, Heule F (2002) Results of photopatch testing in Rotterdam during a 10-year period. Br J Dermatol 146:275–279PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Scalf L, Davis M, Rohlinger A, Connolly S (2009) Photopatch testing of 182 patients: a 6-year experience at the Mayo Clinic. Dermatitis 20:44–52PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Valbuena Mesa MC, Hoyos Jiménez EV (2016) Photopatch testing in Bogota (Colombia): 2011–2013. Contact Dermatitis 74(1):11–17PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Avenel-Audrun M, Dulartre H, Goossens A, Jeanmougin M, Comte C, Bernier C et al (2010) Octocrylene, an emerging photoallergen. Arch Dermatol 146(7):753–757Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Haylett A, Chiang Y, Nie Z, Ling T, Rhodes L (2014) Sunscreen photopatch testing: a series of 157 children. Br J Dermatol 171(2):370–375PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Waters A, Sandhu D, Lowe G, Ferguson J (2009) Photocontact allergy to PABA: the need for continuous vigilance. Contact Dermatitis 60(3):172–173PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Chuah SY, Leow YH, Teik A, Goon J, Thiam C, Theng S et al (2013) Photopatch testing in Asians: a 5-year experience in. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 29:116–120PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hu Y, Wang D, Shen Y, Tang H (2016) Photopatch testing in Chinese patients over 10 years. Dermatitis 27(3):137–142PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Andrade P, Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A (2010) Allergic contact dermatitis to decyl glucoside in Tinosorb M. Contact Dermatitis 62(2):119–120PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hughes T, Martin J, Lewis V, Stone N (2005) Allergic contact dermatitis to drometrizole trisiloxane in a sunscreen with concomitant sensitivities to other sun screens. Contact Dermatitis 52(4):226PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hindsén M, Zimerson E, Bruze M (2006) Photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen in Southern Sweden. Contact Dermatitis 54:150–157PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Diaz R, Gardeazabal J, Manrique P, Ratón J, Urrutia I, Rodriguez-Sasiain J et al (2006) Greater allergenicity of topical ketoprofen in contact dermatitis confirmed by use. Contact Dermatitis 54:239–243PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Devleeschouwer V, Roelandts R, Garmyn M, Goossens A (2008) Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: results of (photo) patch testing and follow-up of 42 patients. Contact Dermatitis 58:159–166PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    LeCoz C, Bottlaender A, Scrivener J-N, Santinelli F, Cribier B, Heidei E et al (1998) Photocontact dermatitis from ketoprofen and tiaprofenic acid: cross-reactivity study in 12 consecutive patients. Contact Dermatitis 38:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Matthieu L, Meuleman L, Van Hecke E, Blondeel A, Dezfoulian B, Constandt L et al (2004) Contact and photocontact allergy to ketoprofen. The Belgian experience. Contact Dermatitis 50(4):238–241PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lasa Elgezua O, Gorrotxategi P, Gardeazabal Gracia J, Ratón Nieto J, Pérez J (2004) Photoallergic hand eczema due to benzydamine. Eur J Dermatol 14(1):69–70PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Katsarou A, Makris M, Zarafonitis G, Lagogianni E, Gregoriou S, Kalogeromitros D (2008) Photoallergic contact dermatitis:the 15-year experience of a tertiary reference center in a sunny Mediterranean city. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 21:725–727PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Fernández-Jorge B, Goday-Buján J, Murga M, Molina F, Pérez-Varela L, Fonseca E (2009) Photoallergic contact dermatitis due to diclofenac with cross-reaction to aceclofenac: two case reports. Contact Dermatitis 61(4):236–237PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kowalzick L, Ziegler H (2006) Photoallergic contact dermatitis from topical diclofenac in Solaraze gel. Contact Dermatitis 54(6):348–349PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rato M, Gil F, Monteiro AF, Parente J (2018) Fenofibrate photoallergy – relevance of patch and photopatch testing. Contact Dermatitis 78(6):413–414PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kuwatsuka S, Kuwatsuka Y, Takenaka M, Utani A (2016) Case of photosensitivity caused by fenofibrate after photosensitization to ketoprofen. J Dermatol 43(2):224–225PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Llompart M, Celeiro M, Pablo-Lamas J, Sanchez-Prado L, Lores M, Garcia-Jares C (2013) Analysis of plasticizers and synthetic musks in cosmetic and personal care products by matrix solid-phase dispersion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1293:10–19PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Qu L, Zhao C, Wang C, Gu S, Zhang M, Deng X et al (2018) A novel zebrafish (Danio rerio) assay for assessing musk Ambrette-induced toxicity. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 101(1):80–85PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Jeanmougin M, Menciet J, Dubertret L (1992) Contact fentichlor photoallergy from soap for handwashing. Ann Dermatol Vénéreol 119:983–985PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Durbize E, Vigan M, Puzenat E, Girardin P, Adessi B, Desprez P et al (2003) Spectrum of cross-photosensitization in 18 consecutive patients with contact photoallergy to ketoprofen: associated photoallergies to non-benzophenone-containing molecules. Contact Dermatitis 48:144–149PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Vachiramon V, Wattanakrai P (2005) Photoallergic contact sensitization to 6-methylcoumarin in poikiloderma of Civatte. Dermatitis 16:136–138PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Rodríguez E, Valbuena M, Rey M, Porras de Quintana L (2006) Causal agents of photoallergic contact dermatitis diagnosed in the national institute of dermatology of Colombia. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 22:189–192PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinic of Dermatology, Coimbra University Hospital, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

Personalised recommendations