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Chemical Methods for Detection of Allergens and Skin Exposure

  • Jakob Dahlin
  • Cecilia SvedmanEmail author
  • Birgitta Gruvberger
  • Magnus Bruze
  • Carola Lidén
  • Sigfrid Fregert
Living reference work entry

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Abstract

Many allergens are widely used in both consumer and occupational products. In many cases, it is difficult to know all the ingredients of a product since most products are not sufficiently labelled. To diagnose and prevent allergic contact dermatitis, the demonstration of allergens in the products from the patient’s environment is important. Chemical analysis of a product can make it possible to demonstrate the presence or absence of known allergens. Simple spot tests or documented analytical methods such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can be used. Moreover, with chemical methods, the purity of a substance can be checked and new allergens can be isolated and identified. Advanced methods such as mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and infrared spectrophotometry (IR) are often required to identify isolated allergens.

Keywords

Chemical analysis Spot test Thin layer chromatography Extract Liquid chromatography Gas chromatography Mass spectrometry Atomic absorption Spectrophotometry UV IR NMR Nickel Cobalt Chromate Formaldehyde Epoxy Skin exposure assessment Fluorescent tracer Tape stripping Acid wipe sampling Bag rinsing Surrogate skin sampling 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jakob Dahlin
    • 1
  • Cecilia Svedman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Birgitta Gruvberger
    • 1
  • Magnus Bruze
    • 1
  • Carola Lidén
    • 2
  • Sigfrid Fregert
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Occupational and Environmental DermatologySkåne University HospitalMalmöSweden
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Department of Occupational and Environmental DermatologySkåne University HospitalMalmöSweden

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