Interface Between Oral and Systemic Disease

  • Michele D. MignognaEmail author
  • Stefania Leuci
Reference work entry


Oral medicine is a specialty of dentistry concerned with the oral health care of patients with chronic, recurrent and medically related disorders of the orofacial region and with their diagnosis and nonsurgical management. For these reasons, familiarity with medical conditions that correlate with the most common oral diseases is absolutely essential for specialists in oral medicine, as well as for all health care practitioners, to provide their patients with the best possible care.

In internal medicine, medical professionals usually take a whole of person approach to diagnosis and treatment of systemic diseases. Similarly, oral medicine specialists should consider the orofacial region as a mirror to body systems and “think systemically”. After all, oral health is part of general health. Careful examination of the oral cavity may reveal findings indicative of underlying systemic diseases. Further, local diseases may result from treatments and drugs with a profound impact on the patient’s health. This strong relationship between internal medicine and oral medicine mandates a comprehensive understanding of medicine for all oral medicine specialists. This chapter focuses on systemic diseases within an oral medicine context, specifically presenting diseases of cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, hematologic, renal, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders. This chapter is intended to offer a pathway for guidance of in depth medical information critical in contemporary oral medicine practice.


Systemic evaluation Systemic diseases Systemic pathology Internal medicine Disseminated diseases Localized diseases Cardiovascular diseases Respiratory diseases Endocrine disorders Gastrointestinal disorders Musculoskeletal disorders Hematological disorders Renal diseases Neurological disorders Psychiatric disorders 


  1. Abhishek A, Doherty M. Diagnosis and clinical presentation of osteoarthritis. Rheum Dis Clin Am. 2013;39:45–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adami S, Marcocci C, Gatti D. Epidemiology of primary hyperparathyroidism in Europe. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:N18–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aho K, Harmsen P, Hatano S, Marquardsen J, Smirnov VE, Strasser T. Cerebrovascular disease in the community: results of a WHO collaborative study. Bull World Health Organ. 1980;58:113–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis B in Europe and worldwide. J Hepatol. 2003;39:S64–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(1):S5–S10.Google Scholar
  6. American Diabetes Association. 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(Suppl 1):S13–22.Google Scholar
  7. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Angastiniotis M, Modell B. Global epidemiology of hemoglobin disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;850:251–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ansell J, Hirsh J, Poller L, Bussey H, Jacobson A, Hylek E. The pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists: the seventh ACCP conference on antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy. Chest. 2004;126(3 Suppl):204S–33S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Antony AC. Vegetarianism and vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:3–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. AusDI. 2018. [online] Accessed 21 May 2018.
  12. Bandelow B, Michaelis S. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21stcentury. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2015;17(3):327–35.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Barlow DH. Anxiety and its disorders: the nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. New York: Guilford Press; 2004.Google Scholar
  14. Bellomo R, Kellum JA, Ronco C. Acute kidney injury. Lancet. 2012;380(9843):756–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bernard BP, editor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. A critical review of epidemiologic evidence for work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, upper extremity, and low back. 2018. Accessed 8 May 2018.
  16. Bernier PL, Stefanescu A, Samoukovic G, Tchervenkov CI. The challenge of congenital heart disease worldwide: epidemiologic and demographic facts. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu. 2010;13(1):26–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beutler E, Waalen J. The definition of anemia: what is the lower limit of normal of the blood hemoglobin concentration? Blood. 2006;107:1747–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bogdan FP, Pirko I, Lucchinetti FC. Pathology of multiple sclerosis: where do we stand? Cont Lifelong Learn Neurol. 2013;19:901–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brunoni AR, Lopes M, Fregni F. A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies on major depression and BDNF levels: implications for the role of neuroplasticity in depression. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;11:1169–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bui AL, Horwich TB, Fonarow GC. Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011;8(1):30–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Buskila D, Cohen H, Neumann L, Ebstein RP. An association between fibromyalgia and the dopamine D4 receptor exon III repeat polymorphism and relationship to novelty seeking personality traits. Mol Psychiatry. 2004;9:730–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Buskila D, Sarzi-Puttini P, Ablin JN. The genetics of fibromyalgia syndrome. Pharmacogenomics. 2007;8:67–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Campeau L. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society grading of angina pectoris revisited 30 years later. Can J Cardiol. 2002;18(4):371–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Campo E, Swerdlow SH, Harris NL, Pileri S, Stein H, Jaffe ES. The 2008 WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms and beyond: evolving concepts and practical applications. Blood. 2011;117(19):5019–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carandang R, Seshadri S, Beiser A, et al. Trends in incidence, lifetime risk, severity, and 30-day mortality of stroke over the past 50 years. JAMA. 2006;296:2939–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cheung MC, Maguire J, Carey I, Wendon J, Agarwal K. Review of the neurological manifestations of hepatitis E infection. Ann Hepatol. 2012;11:618–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chio A, Logroscino G, Hardiman O, Swingler R, Mitchell D, Beghi E, Traynor BG. Prognostic factors in ALS: a critical review. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2009;10:310–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chlebowski RT, Anderson GL. Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer mortality: clinical implications. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2015;6(2):45–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT Jr, Roccella EJ, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA. 2003;289(19):2560–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chulilla JAM, Colás MSR, Martín MG. Classification of anemia for gastroenterologists. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(37):4627–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cojocariu CE, Trifan AV, Gîrleanu I, Stanciu C. Alcoholic liver disease – epidemiology and risk factors. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2014;118(4):910–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Compston A, Coles A. Multiple sclerosis. Lancet. 2008;372:1502–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Conti CR. Re-thinking angina. Clin Cardiol. 2007;30(2 Suppl 1):I1–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Coope A, Torsoni AS, Velloso LA. Mechanism in endocrinology: metabolic and inflammatory pathways on the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2016;174(5):R175–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cooper C, Cole ZA, Holroyd CR, et al. Secular trends in the incidence of hip and other osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22:1277–88.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Costantinides F, Rizzo R, Pascazio L, Maglione M. Managing patients taking novel oral anticoagulants (NOAs) in dentistry: a discussion paper on clinical implications. BMC Oral Health. 2016;16(1):5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davies MJ. The pathophysiology of acute coronary syndromes. Heart. 2000;83(3):361–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. deBruin TWA, Bolk JH, Bussemaker JK, Stijnen T, Schreuder GM, deBries RRP, van der Heide D. Graves’ disease: immunological and immunogenetic indications of relapse. Br Med J. 1988;296:1292–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Delaney B, McColl K. Review article: Helicobacter pylori and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;22(Suppl 1):32–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dent J, El-Serag HB, Wallander MA, Johansson S. Epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review. Gut. 2005;54:710–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dignass A, Eliakim R, Magro F, Maaser C, Chowers Y, Geboes K, Mantzaris G, Reinisch W, Colombel JF, Vermeire S, et al. Second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis part 1: definitions and diagnosis. J Crohns Colitis. 2012;6:965–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dodds WJ, Dent J, Hogan WJ, Helm JF, Hauser R, Patel GK, Egide MS. Mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with reflux esophagitis. N Engl J Med. 1982;307:1547–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Domenech E, Kelly J. Swallowing disorders. Med Clin North Am. 1999;83(1):97–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dunn W, Shah VH. Pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Clin Liver Dis. 2016;20(3):445–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Engelborghs S, D’Hooge R, De Deyn PP. Pathophysiology of epilepsy. Acta Neurol Belg. 2000;100(4):201–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Epstein AE, DiMarco JP, Ellenbogen KA, et al. For the American College of Cardiology Foundation, American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, et al. 2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update incorporated into the ACCF/AHA/HRS 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61(3):e6–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fass R. Erosive esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) – comparison of epidemiological, physiological and therapeutic characteristics. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007;41:131–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ferri C, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection and B-cell lymphomas. Eur J Can. 1994;30:1591–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fisher RS, van Emde BW, Blume W, et al. Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE). Epilepsia. 2005;46:470–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fox K, et al. Task force on the management of stable angina pectoris of the European Society of Cardiology; ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG). Guidelines on the management of stable angina pectoris: executive summary: the task force on the management of stable angina pectoris of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2006;27(11):1341–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gatchel RJ, Kishino N. Pain, musculoskeletal injuries, and return to work. In: Quick JC, Tetrick LE, editors. Handbook of occupational health psychology. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2011.Google Scholar
  52. Gessl A, Lemmens-Gruber R, Kautzky-Willer A. Thyroid disorders. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2012;214:361–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD (2017) Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) [internet].
  54. Griepp RB, Ergin MA. The history of experimental heart transplantation. J Heart Transplant. 1984;3:145.Google Scholar
  55. Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, Gordon DJ, Krauss RM, Savage PJ, Smith SC Jr, Spertus JA, Costa F. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome. An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Executive Summary. Circulation. 2005.Google Scholar
  56. Gürsoy S, Erdal E, Herken H, Madenci E, Alasehirli B. Association of T102C polymorphism of the 5-HT2A receptor gene with psychiatric status in fibromyalgia syndrome. Rheumatol Int. 2001;21:58–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Guy M, Neil P, David S, Innes A. The global asthma report. 2014 [Internet].
  58. Habib G, Lancellotti P, Antunes MJ, Bongiorni MG, Casalta JP, Del Zotti F, et al. 2015 ESC guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis: The Task Force for the Management of Infective Endocarditis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Endorsed by: European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS), the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Eur Heart J. 2015;36:3075–128.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Hadler SC, McFarland L. Hepatitis in day care centers: epidemiology and prevention. Rev Infect Dis. 1986;8(4):548–57.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Halbert RJ, Natoli JL, Gano A, Badamgarav E, Buist AS, Mannino DM. Global burden of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2006;28(3):523–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Haller MJ, Atkinson MA, Schatz D. Type 1 diabetes mellitus: etiology, presentation, and management. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2005;52:1553–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Halmi KA. The multimodal treatment of eating disorders. World Psychiatry. 2005;4(2):69–73.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Han MK, McLaughlin VV, Criner GJ, Martinez FJ. Pulmonary diseases and the heart. Circulation. 2007;116(25):2992–3005.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Hauser SL, Goodwin DS. Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, editors. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine, vol. II. 17th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2008. pp. 2611–2621.Google Scholar
  65. Hehn ST, Grogan TM, Miller TP. Utility of fine-needle aspiration as a diagnostic technique in lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:3046–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Henkel M, Redfield M, Weston SA, Gerber Y, Roger VL. Death in heart failure. A community perspective. Circ Heart Fail. 2008;1:91–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Herrera A. Valvular heart disease. In: Steolting’s anesthesia and co-existing disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2018. p. 128.Google Scholar
  68. Higashida RT, Johnston SC, Kidwell CS, Lutsep HL, Miller E, Sacco RL. Definition and evaluation of transient ischemic attack: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and the Interdisciplinary Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease. Stroke. 2009;40:2276–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hostetter TH. Progression of renal disease and renal hypertrophy. Annu Rev Physiol. 1995;57:263–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG, et al. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61:348–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hurrell R, Egli I. Iron bioavailability and dietary reference values. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(5):1461S–7S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Irshad M, Dhar I. Hepatitis C virus core protein: an update on its molecular biology, cellular functions and clinical implications. Med Princ Pract. 2006;15:405–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jahan F, Nanji K, Qidwai W, Qasim R. Fibromyalgia syndrome: an overview of pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Oman Med J. 2012;27(3):192–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 Evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC-8). JAMA. 2014;311:507–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jessup M, Abraham WT, Casey DE, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG, Konstam MA, Mancini DM, Rahko PS, Silver MA, Stevenson LW, Yancy CW. 2009 focused update: ACCF/AHA guidelines for the diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: developed in collaboration with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Circulation. 2009;119(14):1977–2016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jin J. Inflammatory bowel disease. JAMA. 2014;311(19):2034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kadiyala R, Peter R, Okosieme OE. Thyroid dysfunction in patients with diabetes: clinical implications and screening strategies. Int J Clin Pract. 2010;64(8):1130–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kaltenbach T, Crockett S, Gerson LB. Are lifestyle measures effective in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease? An evidence-based approach. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:965–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kamar N, Bendall R, Legrand-Abravanel F, Xia NS, Ijaz S, Izopet J, Dalton HR. Hepatitis E. Lancet. 2012;379:2477–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kao HJ. Diagnosis of hepatitis B virus infection through serological and virological markers. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;2:553–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kaplan AG, Balter MS, Bell AD, Kim H, McIvor RA. Diagnosis of asthma in adults. CMAJ. 2009;181(10):E210–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Koretz D, Merikangas KR, Rush AJ, Walters EE, Wang PS, National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA. 2003;289(23):3095–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. KIDGO. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Working Group. Definition and classification of acute kidney injury. Kidney Int Suppl. 2012;2:19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kupfer DJ, Frank E, Phillips ML. Major depressive disorder: new clinical, neurobiological, and treatment perspectives. Lancet. 2012;379(9820):1045–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lai CL, Ratziu V, Yuen MF, Poynard T. Viral hepatitis B. Lancet 2003;20;362(9401):2089–2094.Google Scholar
  86. Lampe FC, Whincup PH, Wanamethee SG, Shaper AG, Walker M, Ebrahim S. The natural history of prevalent ischaemic heart disease in middle aged men. Eur Heart J. 2000;21:1052–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lanau N, Maresque J, Gilner L, Zabalza M. Direct oral anticoagulants and its implications in dentistry. A review of literature. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017;9(11):e1346–54.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Launer LJ. The epidemiologic study of dementia: a life-long quest? Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26:335–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Lawrence RC, Felson DT, Helmick CG, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part II. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(1):26–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lemon SM. Type A viral hepatitis. New developments in an old disease. N Engl J Med. 1985;313(17):1059–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Levey AS, Eckardt KU, Tsukamoto Y, Levin A, Coresh J, Rossert J, De Zeeuw D, Hostetter TH, Lameire N, Eknoyan G. Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: a position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int. 2005;67(6):2089–100.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Libby P, Lichtman AH, Hansson GK. Immune effector mechanisms implicated in atherosclerosis: from mice to humans. Immunity. 2013;38(6):1092–104.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lindholm J, Juul S, Jorgenson JO, et al. Incidence and late prognosis of Cushing’s syndrome: a population based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:117–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lip GY, Mitchell SA, Liu X, Liu LZ, Phatak H, Kachroo S, et al. Relative efficacy and safety of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants for non-valvular atrial fibrillation: network meta-analysis comparing apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and edoxaban in three patient subgroups. Int J Cardiol. 2016;204:88–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Lloyd-Jones DM, Larson MG, Leip EP, Beiser A, D’Agostino RB, Kannel WB, Murabito JM, Vasan RS, Benjamin EJ, Levy D. Lifetime risk for developing congestive heart failure: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2002;106(24):3068–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Lloyd-Jones D, Adams RJ, Brown TM, Carnethon M, Dai S, De Simone G, Ferguson TB, Ford E, Furie K, Gillespie C, Go A, Greenlund K, Haase N, Hailpern S, Ho PM, Howard V, Kissela B, Kittner S, Lackland D, Lisabeth L, Marelli A, MM MD, Meigs J, Mozaffarian D, Mussolino M, Nichol G, Roger VL, Rosamond W, Sacco R, Sorlie P, Roger VL, Thom T, Wasserthiel-Smoller S, Wong ND, Wylie-Rosett J, American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010;121(7):e46–e215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Lobo MD, Sobotka PA, Pathak A. Interventional procedures and future drug therapy for hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2017;38(15):1101–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lublin FD, Reingold SC, Cohen JA, Cutter GR, Sorensen PS, Thompson AJ, Wolinsky JS, Balcer LJ, Banwell B, Barkhof F, Bebo B Jr, Calabresi PA, Clanet M, Comi G, Fox RJ, Freedman MS, Goodman AD, Inglese M, Kappos L, Kieseier BC, Lincoln JA, Lubetzki C, Miller AE, Montalban X, O’Connor PW, Petkau J, Pozzilli C, Rudick RA, Sormani MP, Stuve O, Waubant E, Polman CH. Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: the 2013 revisions. Neurology. 2014;83:278–86.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Maganti K, Rigolin VH, Sarano ME, Bonow RO. Valvular heart disease: diagnosis and management. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85(5):483–500.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Maggio M, Basaria S. Welcoming low testosterone as a cardiovascular risk factor. Int J Impot Res. 2009;21(4):261–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mahmood SS, Levy D, Vasan RS, Wang TJ. The Framingham Heart Study and the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease: a historical perspective. Lancet. 2014;383(9921):999–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mani A, Lee DA. Images in clinical medicine. Leukemic gingival infiltration. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(3):274.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Manolagas SC. Birth and death of bone cells: basic regulatory mechanisms and implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis. Endocr Rev. 2000;21:1132–6.Google Scholar
  104. Maritim AC, Sanders RA, Watkins JB. Diabetes, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: a review. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2003;17(1):24–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Masi L. Epidemiology of osteoporosis. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2008;5(1):11–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. McColl KE. When saliva meets acid: chemical warfare at the oesophagogastric junction. Gut. 2005;54:1–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. McMurray JJ, et al. ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: the task force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J. 2012;33(14):1787–847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mehta PK, Wei J, Wenger NK. Ischemic heart disease in women: a focus on risk factors. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2015;25(2):140–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Memmos D, Williams G, Eastwood J, et al. The role of parathyroidectomy in the management of hyperparathyroidism in patients on maintenance haemodialysis and after renal transplantation. Nephron. 1982;30:143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Messina JP, Humphreys I, Flaxman A, Brown A, Cooke GS, Pybus OG, Barnes E. Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepatology. 2015;61(1):77–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mitchell SC, Korones SB, Berendes HW. Congenital heart disease in 56,109 births. Incidence and natural history. Circulation. 1971;43:323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Molodecky NA, Soon IS, Rabi DM, Ghali WA, Ferris M, Chernoff G, Benchimol EI, Panaccione R, Ghosh S, Barkema HW, et al. Increasing incidence and prevalence of the inflammatory bowel diseases with time, based on systematic review. Gastroenterology. 2012;142:46–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Monaco F. Classification of thyroid diseases: suggestions for a revision. JCEM. 2003;88(4):1428–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, et al. For the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2015 update: a report from the american heart association. Circulation. 2015;131(4):e29–e322.Google Scholar
  115. Murdoch DR, Corey GR, Hoen B, The International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS) Investigators. Clinical presentation, etiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis in the 21st century: the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:463–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Murray CJ, Vos T, Lozano R, Naghavi M, Flaxman AD, et al. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2197–223. Scholar
  117. Naganska E, Matyja E. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-looking for pathogenesis and effective therapy. Folia Neuropathol. 2011;49(1):1–13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. National Institute of Clinical Excellence. Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: antimicrobial prophylaxis against infective endocarditis in adults and children undergoing interventional procedures. Clinical guideline. 2008.
  119. National Kidney Foundation. Clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39:S1–S266.Google Scholar
  120. Neuman MG, Nanau RM. Inflammatory bowel disease: role of diet, microbiota, life style. Transl Res. 2012;160(1):29–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ney DM, Weiss JM, Kind AJ, Robbins J. Senescent swallowing: impact, strategies, and interventions. Nutr Clin Pract. 2009;24(3):395–413.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Nieman LK, Ilias I. Evaluation and treatment of Cushing’s syndrome. Am J Med. 2005;118:134–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy. Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. JAMA. 2001;285(6):785–95.Google Scholar
  124. NIH-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Program. 2016a.
  125. NIH-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Program.; 2016b.
  126. Nitzan O, Elias M, Peretz A, Saliba W. Role of antibiotics for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22(3):1078–87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. O’Connor KC, Bar-Or A, Hafler DA. The neuroimmunology of multiple sclerosis: possible roles of T and B lymphocytes in immunopathogenesis. J Clin Immunol. 2001;21:81–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Padwal RS. Obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome: the global scourge. Can J Cardiol. 2014;30(5):467–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Parasrampuria DA, Truitt KE. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of edoxaban, a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant that inhibits clotting factor Xa. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2016;55(6):641–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Perry L, Love CP. Screening for dysphagia and aspiration in acute stroke: a systematic review. Dysphagia. 2001;16(1):7–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Pinnock H. Respiratory medicine. Br J Gen Pract. 2004;54(504):539–47.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Putzki N, Pfriem A, Limmroth V, Yaldizli O, Tettenborn B, Diener HC, Katsarava Z. Prevalence of migraine, tension-type headache and trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16(2):262–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rahman I, Biswas SK, Kode A. Oxidant and antioxidant balance in the airways and airway diseases. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;533:222–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Raimondi P, Hylek EM, Aronis KN. Reversal agents for oral antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatment during bleeding events: current strategies. Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(9):1406–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Reller MD, Strickland MJ, Riehle-Colarusso T, Mahle WT, Correa A. Prevalence of congenital heart defects in Atlanta, 1998–2005. J Pediatr. 2008;153:807–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2011 update: a report from the American Psychiatric Association DSM 5 2013. Circulation. 2011;123:e18–e209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rose DK, Bar B. Direct oral anticoagulant agents: pharmacologic profile, indications, coagulation monitoring, and reversal agents. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018;Google Scholar
  138. Rowland LP, Shneider NA. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1688–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Saltnes SS, Storhaug K, Borge CR, Enmarker I, Willumsen T. Oral health-related quality-of-life and mental health in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Acta Odontol Scand. 2014;73(1):14–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Schiller JS, Lucas JW, Ward BW, Peregoy JA. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Vital Health Stat. 2012;10:1–207.Google Scholar
  141. Sharma ST, Nieman LK. Cushing’s syndrome: all variants, detection and treatments. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2011;40(2):379–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Simonneau G, et al. Clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:5S–12S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Simpson S Jr, Blizzard L, Otahal P, van der Mei I, Taylor B. Latitude is significantly associated with the prevalence of multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011;82:1132–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Smith DB, Bukh J, Kuiken C, Muerhoff AS, Rice CM, Stapleton JT, Simmonds P. Expanded classification of hepatitis C virus into 7 genotypes and 67 subtypes: updated criteria and genotype assignment web resource. Hepatology. 2014;59:318–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Stacy ZA, Call WB, Hartmann AP, Peters GL, Richter SK. Edoxaban: a comprehensive review of the pharmacology and clinical data for the management of atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. Cardiology and therapy. 2016;5(1):1–18.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Stapleton JT. Host immune response to hepatitis A virus. J Infect Dis. 1995;171:S9–S14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Steel Z, Marnane C, Iranpour C, Chey T, Jackson JW, Patel V, Silove D. The global prevalence of common mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis 1980–2013. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(2):476–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Stein DJ, Phillips KA, Bolton D, Fulford KW, Sadler JZ, Kendler KS. What is a mental/psychiatric disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V. Psychol Med. 2010;40(11):1759–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Sullivan P. Course and outcome of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In: Eating disorders and obesity, vol. 6. 2002, p. 226–32.Google Scholar
  150. Tapper H, Herwald H. Modulation of hemostatic mechanism in bacterial infectious diseases. Blood. 2000;96:2329–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Thadhani R, Pascual M, Bonventre JV. Acute Renal Failure. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:1448–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Thomas MS, Parolia A, Kundabala M, Vikram M. Asthma and oral health: a review. Aust Dent J. 2010;55:128–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Thomson A, Gupta M, Freeman H. Use of the tumor necrosis factor-blockers for Crohn’s disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:4823–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Thornhill MH, Dayer M, Lockhart PB, McGurk M, Shanson D, Prendergast B, et al. A change in the NICE guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis. Br Dent J. 2016;221:112–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS, Simoons ML, Chaitman BR, White HD. Third universal definition of myocardial infarction. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2012;9:620–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Tolosa E, Wenning G, Poewe W. The diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5(1):75–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Tornkvist M, Smith JG, Labaf A. Current evidence of oral anticoagulant reversal: a systematic review. Thromb Res. 2018;162:22–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Tran H, Joseph J, Young L, McRae S, Curnow J, Nandurkar H, McLintock C. New oral anticoagulants: a practical guide on prescription, laboratory testing and peri-procedural/bleeding management. Intern Med J. 2014;44(6):525–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Tysnes OB, Storstein A. Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm. 2017;124(8):901–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Valva P, Ríos DA, De Matteo E, Preciado MV. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: serum biomarkers in predicting liver damage. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22(4):1367–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Vardiman JW, Thiele J, Arber DA, Brunning RD, Borowitz MJ, Porwit A, Harris NL, Le Beau MM, Hellström-Lindberg E, Tefferi A, Bloomfield CD. The 2008 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: rationale and important changes. Blood. 2009;114(5):937–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Veeraswamy S, Vijayam B, Gupta VK, Kapur A. Gestational diabetes: the public health relevance and approach. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;97(3):350–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Videbech P, Ravnkilde B. Hippocampal volume and depression: a meta-analysis of MRI studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(11):1957–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Vincent A, Lahr BD, Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Whipple MO, Oh TH, et al. Prevalence of fibromyalgia: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, Utilizing the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013;65:786–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wang C, Nieschlag E, Swerdloff RS, Behre H, Hellstrom WJ, Gooren LJ, Kaufman JM, Legros JJ, Lunenfeld B, Morales A, Morley JE, Schulman C, Thompson IM, Weidner W, Wu FC, ISA ISSAM. EAU, EAA and ASA recommendations: investigation, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism in males. Aging Male. 2009;12(1):5–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Webb G, Mulder BJ, Aboulhosn J, et al. The care of adults with congenital heart disease across the globe: current assessment and future perspective: a position statement from the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD). Int J Cardiol. 2015;195:326–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Weitzenblum E, Chaouat A. Cor pulmonale. Chron Respir Dis. 2009;6(3):177–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Wenzel SE. Asthma: defining of the persistent adult phenotypes. Lancet. 2006;368(9537):804–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. Guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;(17):735–1097.Google Scholar
  170. WHO. World Health Organization. Chronic cor pulmonale: a report of the expert committee. Circulation. 1963;27:594–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. WHO. World Health Organization. Report of a WHO scientific group. Nutritional anaemias. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1968;405:5–37.Google Scholar
  172. World Health Organization. Epilepsy: epidemiology, aetiology and prognosis. WHO Factsheet 2001.Google Scholar
  173. WHO. World Health Organization. Diagnostic criteria and classification of hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy. Geneva: WHO Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  174. World Health Organization. Dementia Fact sheet N°362. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 28 Nov 2014.Google Scholar
  175. WHO. World Health Organization. Fact sheet. 164. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015a [internet]. Hepatitis C.
  176. WHO. World Health Organization. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems 10th revision. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015b.
  177. Zalatel K, Gaberscek S. Hashomoto’s thyroiditis: from genes to the disease. Curr Genomics. 2011;12(8):576–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Zhang DL, Ghosh MC, Rouault TA. The physiological functions of iron regulatory proteins in iron homeostasis – an update. Front Pharmacol. 2014;5:130.Google Scholar
  179. Zheng ZJ, Croft JB, Giles WH. State specific mortality from sudden cardiac death – United States, 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51:123–6.Google Scholar
  180. Zhou C, Huang Y, Przedborski S. Oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease: a mechanism of pathogenic and therapeutic significance. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1147:93–104.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oral Medicine Complex Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological SciencesFederico II University of NaplesNaplesItaly

Section editors and affiliations

  • Michael J. McCullough
    • 1
  1. 1.Oral Anatomy, Medicine, and Surgery Section, Melbourne, Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry & Health, SciencesThe University of MelbourneCarltonAustralia

Personalised recommendations