Advertisement

Diagnostic Imaging Principles and Applications in Head and Neck Pathology

  • Andy WhyteEmail author
  • Rudolf Boeddinghaus
  • Marie Anne Teresa J. Matias
Reference work entry

Abstract

Head and neck pathology encompasses multiple, diverse conditions and disease processes, many of which are complex and require imaging as adjunct to clinical examination. Imaging techniques can provide anatomical or functional information, some using ionizing radiation while others do not. Plain radiographs provide a two-dimensional overview of the region of interest, and cross-sectional imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT), cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide multiplanar evaluation of osseous structures of the oral and maxillofacial region. CT and MRI have the additional advantage of providing high-resolution imaging of soft tissues. Initial evaluation of superficially located head and neck soft tissue lesions frequently utilize ultrasound. Nuclear medicine techniques provide functional information, evaluating metabolic turnover of tissue and differentiating pathological from normal tissue. The applications of these imaging techniques are discussed in several clinical scenarios under the headings of mass lesions, salivary gland disease, oral cavity malignancy, osteonecrosis of the jaws, temporomandibular joint disorders, orofacial pain, obstructive sleep apnea, and headaches. This chapter provides the most current data regarding the advantages and disadvantages of imaging techniques as they relate to head and neck pathology.

Keywords

Maxillofacial imaging Cross-sectional imaging Cone beam computed tomography Magnetic resonance imaging Ultrasound Dental panoramic tomography Nuclear medicine Computed tomography Osteonecrosis of jaws Temporomandibular disorders Obstructive sleep apnea Headache 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge Dr Andrew Patrikeos (MBBS, MRCP(UK), FRANZCR, ANZAPNM), Perth Radiological Clinic, for advice and input on nuclear medicine techniques.

References

  1. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency. Radiation protection and health [Internet]. 2015 [updated 2015 September 25; cited 2017 June 08]. Available from http://www.arpansa.gov.au/RadiationProtection/Factsheets/is_ionising.cfm.
  2. Abdullah A, Rivas FF, Srinivasan A. Imaging of the salivary glands. Semin Roentgenol. 2013;48(1):65–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad M, Hollender L, Anderson Q, Kartha K, Ohrbach R, Truelove EL, John MT, Schiffman EL. Research criteria for temporomandibular disorders: development of image analysis criteria and examiner reliability for image analysis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107(6): 844–60.Google Scholar
  4. Ali T. Neck lymph nodes: characterization with diffusion-weighted MRI. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med. 2012;43(2):173–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alkureishi LW, Ross GL, Shoaib T, Soutar DS, Robertson AG, Thompson R, Hunter KD, Sorensen JA, Thomsen J, Krogdahl A, Alvarez J, Barbier L, Santamaria J, Poli T, Sesenna E, Kovacs AF, Grunwald F, Barzan L, Sulfaro S, Alberti F. Sentinel node biopsy in head and neck squamous cell cancer: 5-year follow-up of a European multicenter trial. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17(9):2459–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Alsufyani NA, Flores-Mir C, Major PW. Three-dimensional segmentation of the upper airway using cone beam CT: a systematic review. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2012;41(4):276–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alsufyani NA, Al-Saleh MAQ, Major PW. CBCT assessment of upper airway changes and treatment outcomes of obstructive sleep apnoea: a systematic review. Sleep Breath. 2013;17(3):911–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Arya S, Rane P, Sable N, Juvekar S, Bal M, Chaukar D. Retromolar trigone squamous cell cancers: a reappraisal of 16 section MDCT for assessing mandibular invasion. Clin Radiol. 2013;68(12):e680–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Arya S, Rane P, Deshmukh A. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: role of pretreatment imaging and its influence on management. Clin Radiol. 2014;69(9):916–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Avril L, Lombardi T, Ailianou A, Burkhardt K, Varoquaux A, Scolozzi P, Becker M. Radiolucent lesions of the mandible: a pattern-based approach to diagnosis. Insights Imaging. 2014;5(1):85–101.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Barkdull GC, Kohl CA, Patel M, Davidson TM. Computed tomography imaging of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope. 2008;118(8):1486–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bashir A, Lipton RB, Ashina S, Ashina M. Migraine and structural changes in the brain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurology. 2013;81(14):1260–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baulch J, Gandhi M, Sommerville J, Panizza B. 3T MRI evaluation of large nerve perineural spread of head and neck cancers. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2015;59(5):578–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Berenbaum F. Osteoarthritis as an inflammatory disease (osteoarthritis is not osteoarthrosis!). Osteoarthr Cartil/OARS, Osteoarthr Res Soc. 2013;21(1):16–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boeddinghaus R, Whyte A. Current concepts in maxillofacial imaging. Eur J Radiol. 2008;66(3):396–418.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Boeddinghaus R, Whyte A. Computed tomography of the temporomandibular joint. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2013;57(4):448–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown EC, Cheng S, McKenzie DK, Butler JE, Gandevia SC, Bilston LE. Tongue stiffness is lower in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during wakefulness compared with matched control subjects. Sleep. 2015;38(4):537–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buchanan A, Cohen R, Looney S, Kalathingal S, De Rossi S. Cone-beam CT analysis of patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared to normal controls. Imaging Sci Dent. 2016;46(1):9–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burke CJ, Thomas RH, Howlett D. Imaging the major salivary glands. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;49(4):261–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Callaghan BC, Kerber KA, Pace RJ, Skolarus LE, Burke JF. Headaches and neuroimaging: high utilization and costs despite guidelines. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(5):819–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Camacho M, Capasso R, Schendel S. Airway changes in obstructive sleep apnoea patients associated with a supine versus an upright position examined using cone beam computed tomography. J Laryngol Otol. 2014;128(9):824–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Cantrell SC, Peck BW, Li G, Wei Q, Sturgis EM, Ginsberg LE. Differences in imaging characteristics of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancers: a blinded matched-pair analysis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(10):2005–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Casselman JW, Gieraerts K, Volders D, Delanote J, Mermuys K, De Foer B, Swennen G. Cone beam CT: non-dental applications. JBR-BTR. 2013;96(6):333–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Castaldi P, Leccisotti L, Bussu F, Micciche F, Rufini V. Role of (18)F-FDG PET-CT in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2013;33(1):1–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen RC, Khorsandi AS, Shatzkes DR, Holliday RA. The radiology of referred otalgia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30(10):1817–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Choi JW, Kim HJ, Kim J, Kim HJ, Cha JH, Kim ST. Spindle cell lipoma of the head and neck: CT and MR imaging findings. Neuroradiology. 2013;55(1):101–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Cure JK, Vattoth S, Shah R. Radiopaque jaw lesions: an approach to the differential diagnosis. Radiographics. 2012;32(7):1909–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. De Vos W, Casselman J, Swennen GRJ. Cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) imaging of the oral and maxillofacial region: a systematic review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;38(6):609–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Deshpande SS, Thakur MH, Dholam K, Mahajan A, Arya S, Juvekar S. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandible: through a radiologist’s eyes. Clin Radiol. 2015;70(2):197–205.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. DeSouza DD, Hodaie M, Davis KD. Abnormal trigeminal nerve microstructure and brain white matter in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Pain. 2014;155(1):37–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. DeSouza DD, Davis KD, Hodaie M. Reversal of insular and microstructural nerve abnormalities following effective surgical treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. Pain. 2015;156(6):1112–23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Devenney-Cakir B, Subramaniam RM, Reddy SM, Imsande H, Gohel A, Sakai O. Cystic and cystic-appearing lesions of the mandible: review. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;196(6 Suppl):WS66–77.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Dunfee BL, Sakai O, Pistey R, Gohel A. Radiologic and pathologic characteristics of benign and malignant lesions of the mandible. Radiographics. 2006;26(6):1751–68.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Enciso R, Nguyen M, Shigeta Y, Ogawa T, Clark GT. Comparison of cone-beam CT parameters and sleep questionnaires in sleep apnea patients and control subjects. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109(2):285–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Enders J, Zimmermann E, Rief M, Martus P, Klingebiel R, Asbach P, Klessen C, Diederichs G, Bengner T, Teichgraber U, Hamm B, Dewey M. Reduction of claustrophobia during magnetic resonance imaging: methods and design of the "CLAUSTRO" randomized controlled trial. BMC Med Imaging. 2011;11:4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Farina D, Bodin C, Gandolfi S, De Gasperi W, Borghesi A, Maroldi R. TMJ disorders and pain: assessment by contrast-enhanced MRI. Eur J Radiol. 2009;70(1):25–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Favier I, van Vliet JA, Roon KI, Witteveen RJW, Verschuuren JJGM, Ferrari MD, Haan J. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias due to structural lesions: a review of 31 cases. Arch Neurol. 2007;64(1):25–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Filippi M, Rocca MA, Ciccarelli O, De Stefano N, Evangelou N, Kappos L, Rovira A, Sastre-Garriga J, Tintore M, Frederiksen JL, Gasperini C, Palace J, Reich DS, Banwell B, Montalban X, Barkhof F, M. S. Group. MRI criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: MAGNIMS consensus guidelines. Lancet Neurol. 2016;15(3):292–303.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fujita A, Sakai O, Chapman MN, Sugimoto H. IgG4-related disease of the head and neck: CT and MR imaging manifestations. Radiographics. 2012;32(7):1945–58.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Gadodia A, Seith A, Sharma R, Thakar A. MRI and MR sialography of juvenile recurrent parotitis. Pediatr Radiol. 2010;40(8):1405–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Gamss C, Gupta A, Chazen JL, Phillips CD. Imaging evaluation of the suprahyoid neck. Radiol Clin N Am. 2015;53(1):133–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Genta PR, Schorr F, Eckert DJ, Gebrim E, Kayamori F, Moriya HT, Malhotra A, Lorenzi-Filho G. Upper airway collapsibility is associated with obesity and hyoid position. Sleep. 2014;37(10):1673–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guneyli S, Ceylan N, Bayraktaroglu S, Acar T, Savas R. Imaging findings of vascular lesions in the head and neck. Diagn Interv Radiol (Ankara, Turkey). 2014;20(5):432–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gungor AY, Turkkahraman H, Yilmaz HH, Yariktas M. Cephalometric comparison of obstructive sleep apnea patients and healthy controls. Eur J Dent. 2013;7(1):48–54.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Hasan NMA, Abdelrahman TEF. MRI evaluation of TMJ internal derangement: degree of anterior disc displacement correlated with other TMJ soft tissue and osseous abnormalities. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med. 2014;45(3):735–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hatcher DC. Progressive condylar resorption: pathologic processes and imaging considerations. Semin Orthod. 2013;19(2):97–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. The International classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalalgia. 2018;38(1):1–211.Google Scholar
  48. Hendee WR, O’Connor MK. Radiation risks of medical imaging: separating fact from fantasy. Radiology. 2012;264(2):312–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Holle D, Obermann M. The role of neuroimaging in the diagnosis of headache disorders. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2013;6(6):369–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hughes MA, Frederickson AM, Branstetter BF, Zhu X, Sekula RF Jr. MRI of the trigeminal nerve in patients with trigeminal neuralgia secondary to vascular compression. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016;206(3):595–600.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Jaber JJ, Leonetti JP, Lawrason AE, Feustel PJ. Cervical spine causes for referred otalgia. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;138(4):479–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Kanda T, Ishii K, Kawaguchi H, Kitajima K, Takenaka D. High signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images: relationship with increasing cumulative dose of a gadolinium-based contrast material. Radiology. 2014;270(3):834–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Kiesler K, Gugatschka M, Friedrich G. Incidence and clinical relevance of herniation of the mylohyoid muscle with penetration of the sublingual gland. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;264(9):1071–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Kim DS, Cheang P, Dover S, Drake-Lee AB. Dental otalgia. J Laryngol Otol. 2007;121(12):1129–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Kim AM, Keenan BT, Jackson N, Chan EL, Staley B, Poptani H, Torigian DA, Pack AI, Schwab RJ. Tongue fat and its relationship to obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep. 2014;37(10):1639–48.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kirkness JP, Sowho M, Murano E. The interplay between tongue tissue volume, hyoid position, and airway patency. Sleep. 2014;37(10):1585–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. La’porte SJ, Juttla JK, Lingam RK. Imaging the floor of the mouth and the sublingual space. Radiographics. 2011;31(5):1215–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Larheim TA, Abrahamsson AK, Kristensen M, Arvidsson LZ. Temporomandibular joint diagnostics using CBCT. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2015;44(1):20140235.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Leclercq D, Thiebaut JB, Heran F. Trigeminal neuralgia. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2013;94(10):993–1001.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Lee MJ, Lee C, Chung C-S. The migraine-stroke connection. J stroke. 2016;18(2):146–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lev MH, Farkas J, Gemmete JJ, Hossain ST, Hunter GJ, Koroshetz WJ, Gonzalez RG. Acute stroke: improved nonenhanced CT detection–benefits of soft-copy interpretation by using variable window width and center level settings. Radiology. 1999;213(1):150–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Ludlow JB, Ivanovic M. Comparative dosimetry of dental CBCT devices and 64-slice CT for oral and maxillofacial radiology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;106(1):106–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Lustmann J, Regev E, Melamed Y. Sialolithiasis. A survey on 245 patients and a review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1990;19(3):135–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. MacDonald DS. Maxillofacial fibro-osseous lesions. Clin Radiol. 2015;70(1):25–36.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Mansfield DR, Antic NA, McEvoy RD. How to assess, diagnose, refer and treat adult obstructive sleep apnoea: a commentary on the choices. Med J Aust. 2013;199(8):S21–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Mathews JD, Forsythe AV, Brady Z, Butler MW, Goergen SK, Byrnes GB, Giles GG, Wallace AB, Anderson PR, Guiver TA, McGale P, Cain TM, Dowty JG, Bickerstaffe AC, Darby SC. Cancer risk in 680,000 people exposed to computed tomography scans in childhood or adolescence: data linkage study of 11 million Australians. BMJ. 2013;346:f2360.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. May A. New insights into headache: an update on functional and structural imaging findings. Nat Rev Neurol. 2009;5(4):199–209.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. McDonald RJ, McDonald JS, Kallmes DF, Jentoft ME, Murray DL, Thielen KR, Williamson EE, Eckel LJ. Intracranial gadolinium deposition after contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 2015;275(3):772–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Mehra P, Jeong D. Maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2008;10(3):205–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Menon S, Venkatswamy S, Ramu V, Banu K, Ehtaih S, Kashyap VM. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: surgery and literature review. Ann Maxillofac Surg. 2013;3(1):66–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Miao LY, Xue H, Ge HY, Wang JR, Jia JW, Cui LG. Differentiation of pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin’s tumour of the salivary gland: is long-to-short diameter ratio a useful parameter? Clin Radiol. 2015;70(11):1212–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Mirghani H, Amen F, Moreau F, Lacau St Guily J. Do high-risk human papillomaviruses cause oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma? Oral Oncol. 2015;51(3):229–36.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Mittal MK, Malik A, Sureka B, Thukral BB. Cystic masses of neck: a pictorial review. Indian J radiol Imaging. 2012;22(4):334–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mohammed Y, Saeed O, Zaghloulb N, Samerc S, Mahmudd S, Abdulah A. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and the temporomandibular joint. Alex J Med. 2012;48(2):123–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Moisset X, Villain N, Ducreux D, Serrie A, Cunin G, Valade D, Calvino B, Bouhassira D. Functional brain imaging of trigeminal neuralgia. Eur J Pain. 2011;15(2):124–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Ngu RK, Brown JE, Whaites EJ, Drage NA, Ng SY, Makdissi J. Salivary duct strictures: nature and incidence in benign salivary obstruction. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2007;36(2):63–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Ogawa T, Enciso R, Shintaku WH, Clark GT. Evaluation of cross-section airway configuration of obstructive sleep apnea. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103(1):102–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Palconet G, Ludlow JB, Tyndall DA, Lim PF. Correlating cone beam CT results with temporomandibular joint pain of osteoarthritic origin. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2012;41(2):126–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Payne KF, Haq J, Brown J, Connor S. The role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis, lymph node staging and assessment of treatment response of head and neck cancer. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;44(1):1–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Pearce MS, Salotti JA, Little MP, McHugh K, Lee C, Kim KP, Howe NL, Ronckers CM, Rajaraman P, Sir Craft AW, Parker L, Berrington de Gonzalez A. Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2012;380(9840):499–505.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Perry JJ, Stiell IG, Sivilotti MLA, Bullard MJ, Emond M, Symington C, Sutherland J, Worster A, Hohl C, Lee JS, Eisenhauer MA, Mortensen M, Mackey D, Pauls M, Lesiuk H, Wells GA. Sensitivity of computed tomography performed within six hours of onset of headache for diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage: prospective cohort study. BMJ (Clinical research ed). 2011;343:d4277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Petscavage-Thomas JM, Walker EA. Unlocking the jaw: advanced imaging of the temporomandibular joint. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014;203(5):1047–58.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Purohit BS, Ailianou A, Dulguerov N, Becker CD, Ratib O, Becker M. FDG-PET/CT pitfalls in oncological head and neck imaging. Insights Imaging. 2014;5(5):585–602.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ringold S, Cron RQ. The temporomandibular joint in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: frequently used and frequently arthritic. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 2009;7:11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ruggiero SL, Dodson TB, Fantasia J, Goodday R, Aghaloo T, Mehrotra B, O’Ryan F. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons position paper on medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw – 014 update. J Oral Maxillofac Surg Official J American Assoc Oral and Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72(10):1938–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Saito N, Nadgir RN, Nakahira M, Takahashi M, Uchino A, Kimura F, Truong MT, Sakai O. Posttreatment CT and MR imaging in head and neck cancer: what the radiologist needs to know. Radiographics: A Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 2012;32(5):1261–82. discussion 1282–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Scrivani SJ, Becerra L, DaSilva A, Moulton E, Pendse G, Morris S, Aiello-Lammens M, Borsook D. Functional brain imaging of facial pain: functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) studies of the trigeminal system. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103(6):795.Google Scholar
  88. Scrivani SJ, Keith DA, Kaban LB. Temporomandibular disorders. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(25):2693–705.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Srinivasan A, Goyal M, Al Azri F, Lum C. State-of-the-art imaging of acute stroke. Radiographics: A Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 2006;26(Suppl 1):S75–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sumi M, Ichikawa Y, Katayama I, Tashiro S, Nakamura T. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors: differentiation by apparent diffusion coefficients of cystic lesions. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008;29(10):1897–901.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Thoeny HC, De Keyzer F, King AD. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the head and neck. Radiology. 2012;263(1):19–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Vitali C, Carotti M, Salaffi F. Is it the time to adopt salivary gland ultrasonography as an alternative diagnostic tool for the classification of patients with Sjogren’s syndrome? Comment on the article by Cornec et al. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65(7):1950.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Westesson PL, Katzberg RW, Tallents RH, Sanchez-Woodworth RE, Svensson SA. CT and MR of the temporomandibular joint: comparison with autopsy specimens. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987;148(6):1165–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Whyte A, Chapeikin G. Opaque maxillary antrum: a pictorial review. Australas Radiol. 2005;49(3):203–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Whyte AM, McNamara D, Rosenberg I, Whyte AW. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of temporomandibular joint disc displacement–a review of 144 cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35(8):696–703.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Woo EK, Connor SE. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging appearances of cystic lesions in the suprahyoid neck: a pictorial review. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2007;36(8):451–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Yabuuchi H, Fukuya T, Tajima T, Hachitanda Y, Tomita K, Koga M. Salivary gland tumors: diagnostic value of gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MR imaging with histopathologic correlation. Radiology. 2003;226(2):345–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Yesuratnam A, Wiesenfeld D, Tsui A, Iseli TA, Hoorn SV, Ang MT, Guiney A, Phal PM. Preoperative evaluation of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma with intraoral ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging-comparison with histopathological tumour thickness and accuracy in guiding patient management. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;43(7):787–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andy Whyte
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Rudolf Boeddinghaus
    • 3
    • 2
  • Marie Anne Teresa J. Matias
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.University of MelbourneCarltonAustralia
  2. 2.University of Western AustraliaNedlandsAustralia
  3. 3.Perth Radiological ClinicSubiacoAustralia
  4. 4.Ear Science InstituteSubiacoAustralia
  5. 5.Qscan Radiology ClinicsHerstonAustralia

Personalised recommendations