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Odontogenic Bacterial Infections

  • Stuart G. DashperEmail author
  • Alf Nastri
  • Paul V. Abbott
Reference work entry

Abstract

The oral cavity is home to over 700 species of bacteria, known as the human oral microbiome. The oral cavity is an ideal environment for bacterial colonization and growth. Although the majority of these bacteria are beneficial to human health and do not cause disease, under particular circumstances, bacterial infections can occur. The most common bacterial diseases that occur in the oral cavity are in the form of dental caries, periodontal diseases, and pulp, root canal, and periapical diseases. These diseases are overwhelmingly due to bacteria that are part of the normal oral microbiota, and not exogenous pathogens. Pulp and root canal diseases can lead to periradicular conditions such as apical periodontitis, apical abscesses, facial cellulitis (with possible airway involvement), and osteomyelitis. Management of these diseases is based initially on obtaining a complete history and performing a thorough clinical and radiographic examination in order to develop an accurate diagnosis. Various treatment procedures can be provided, depending on the diagnosis – these range from simple dental restorations, periodontal treatment (scaling, root planing), root canal treatment to extraction of the tooth. Various medical and surgical procedures plus the use of antimicrobial drug therapy are required in cases with severe infections and/or systemic signs of the infection. Other conditions such as osteonecrosis of the jaws must be differentiated from oral infections but they may have secondary bacterial involvement.

Keywords

Oral microbiome Dental caries Periodontal diseases Gingivitis Pulpitis Apical periodontitis Apical abscesses Facial cellulitis Oesteomyelitis Osteonecrosis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart G. Dashper
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alf Nastri
    • 2
  • Paul V. Abbott
    • 3
  1. 1.Melbourne Dental School, Oral Health Cooperative Research CentreThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Royal Melbourne HospitalThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.UWA Dental School and Oral Health Centre of Western AustraliaThe University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

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