Orofacial Pain in the Medically Complex Patient

  • Martina K. ShephardEmail author
  • Gary Heir
Reference work entry


Orofacial pain may be the presenting feature of a number of systemic and medical disorders, and clinicians should be aware of the possibility of these rare causes of pain in the orofacial region. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, musculoskeletal, hematological, inflammatory, neurological, malignant, and iatrogenic causes for orofacial pain presentations are discussed in this chapter. “Red flags” and significant clinical features of these conditions are presented. The importance of considering medical or systemic causes in the differential diagnosis of orofacial pain is discussed.


Orofacial pain Medically complex patients Neuropathic pain Systemic disease 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oral Medicine UnitEastman Dental Hospital, University College London Hospitals NHS TrustLondonUK
  2. 2.Center for Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial PainRutgers School of Dental MedicineNewarkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ramesh Balasubramaniam
    • 1
  1. 1.UWA Dental School and Oral Health Centre of Western AustraliaUniversity of Western AustraliaPerth WAAustralia

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