Advertisement

Oral Dysesthesia

  • Giulio FortunaEmail author
  • Joel Napenas
  • Nan Su
  • Miriam Gruskha
  • Gary D. Klasser
Reference work entry

Abstract

Oral dysesthesia (OD) is an idiopathic and chronic medical condition, characterized by pain/discomfort in the oral cavity, for which no local and/or systemic diseases can be identified. The prevalence and the incidence are unknown, although a predisposition to peri-/postmenopausal females has been widely documented, and the etiopathogenesis is still debated. Currently OD is considered a multifactorial condition, in which neurological and psychosocial factors have been studied and largely implicated. Clinically, in the majority of OD patients, the discomfort includes primarily a burning sensation in the mouth and/or many other different complaints that can be associated with a cohort of different sensory symptoms, such as pain, foreign body sensation, increase or decrease of salivation, dysgeusia, or itching. Such symptoms mainly involve the tongue and lips, followed by hard palate mucosae, alveolar ridges, buccal mucosa, and floor of the mouth. In addition, some OD patients may report a wide variety of medically unexplained somatic comorbidities, such as irritable bowel disease or fibromyalgia. The diagnosis is essentially clinical, relying on a thorough medical history, extra-oral and intra-oral examination, and laboratory tests and/or radiologic imaging, in order to ascertain the absence of any local and/or systemic conditions. Management is very complex and based on a multidisciplinary approach. It may indeed include both pharmacologic interventions with the use of topical and systemic therapies, and/or psychological interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy.

Keywords

Oral dysesthesia Burning mouth syndrome Altered sensation Xerostomia Glossodynia 

References

  1. Abetz LM, Savage NW. Burning mouth syndrome and psychological disorders. Aust Dent J. 2009;54(2):84–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adamo D, Schiavone V, Aria M, Leuci S, Ruoppo E, Dell’Aversana G, Mignogna MD. Sleep disturbance in patients with burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study. J Orofac Pain. 2013;27(4):304–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amos K, Yeoh SC, Farah CS. Combined topical and systemic clonazepam therapy for the management of burning mouth syndrome: a retrospective pilot study. J Orofac Pain. 2011;25(2):125–30.Google Scholar
  4. Anand P, Bley K. Topical capsaicin for pain management: therapeutic potential and mechanisms of action of the new high-concentration capsaicin 8% patch. Br J Anaesth. 2011;107(4):490–502.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arpone F, Combremont F, Weber K, Scolozzi P. Burning mouth syndrome – a joint biopsychosocial approach. Rev Med Suisse. 2016;12(505):309–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Axell T. Treatment of smarting symptoms in the oral mucosa by appliance of lingual acrylic splints. Swed Dent J. 2008;32(4):165–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Balasubramaniam R, Klasser GD, Delcanho R. Separating oral burning from burning mouth syndrome: unravelling a diagnostic enigma. Aust Dent J. 2009;54(4):293–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bangash TH. Trigeminal neuralgia: frequency of occurrence in different nerve branches. Anesth Pain Med. 2011;1(2):70–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barker KE, Batstone MD, Savage NW. Comparison of treatment modalities in burning mouth syndrome. Aust Dent J. 2009;54(4):300–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bartoshuk LM, Snyder DJ, Grushka M, Berger AM, Duffy VB, Kveton JF. Taste damage: previously unsuspected consequences. Chem Senses. 2005;30(Suppl 1):i218–9. 30/suppl_1/i218[pii].PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartoshuk LM, Catalanotto F, Hoffman H, Logan H, Snyder DJ. Taste damage (otitis media, tonsillectomy and head and neck cancer), oral sensations and BMI. Physiol Behav. 2012;107(4):516–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ben Aryeh H, Gottlieb I, Ish-Shalom S, David A, Szargel H, Laufer D. Oral complaints related to menopause. Maturitas. 1996;24(3):185–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bergdahl M, Bergdahl J. Burning mouth syndrome: prevalence and associated factors. J Oral Pathol Med. 1999;28(8):350–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bergdahl M, Bergdahl J. Perceived taste disturbance in adults: prevalence and association with oral and psychological factors and medication. Clin Oral Investig. 2002;6(3):145–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bergdahl J, Anneroth G, Perris H. Cognitive therapy in the treatment of patients with resistant burning mouth syndrome: a controlled study. J Oral Pathol Med. 1995a;24(5):213–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bergdahl J, Anneroth G, Perris H. Personality characteristics of patients with resistant burning mouth syndrome. Acta Odontol Scand. 1995b;53(1):7–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Borelli V, Marchioli A, Di Taranto R, Romano M, Chiandussi S, Di Lenarda R, Biasotto M, Zabucchi G. Neuropeptides in saliva of subjects with burning mouth syndrome: a pilot study. Oral Dis. 2010;16(4):365–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Borsani E, Majorana A, Cocchi MA, Conti G, Bonadeo S, Padovani A, Lauria G, Bardellini E, Rezzani R, Rodella LF. Epithelial expression of vanilloid and cannabinoid receptors: a potential role in burning mouth syndrome pathogenesis. Histol Histopathol. 2014;29(4):523–33.Google Scholar
  19. Boucher Y, Simons CT, Carstens MI, Carstens E. Effects of gustatory nerve transection and/or ovariectomy on oral capsaicin avoidance in rats. Pain. 2014;155(4):814–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brailo V, Vueicevic-Boras V, Alajbeg IZ, Alajbeg I, Lukenda J, Aeurkoviae M. Oral burning symptoms and burning mouth syndrome-significance of different variables in 150 patients. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2006;11(3):E252–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brailo V, Firic M, Vucicevic Boras V, Andabak Rogulj A, Krstevski I, Alajbeg I. Impact of reassurance on pain perception in patients with primary burning mouth syndrome. Oral Dis. 2016;22(6):512–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown RS, Flaitz CM, Hays GL, Bottomley WK. Five cases of burning lips syndrome. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 1996;17(10):927–30, 932–926.Google Scholar
  23. Browning S, Hislop S, Scully C, Shirlaw P. The association between burning mouth syndrome and psychosocial disorders. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987;64(2):171–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Buchanan J, Zakrzewska J. Burning mouth syndrome. Clin Evid. 2004;12:1899–905.Google Scholar
  25. Buchanan JA, Zakrzewska JM. Burning mouth syndrome. BMJ Clin Evid. 2010;2010.Google Scholar
  26. Carlson CR, Miller CS, Reid KI. Psychosocial profiles of patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Orofac Pain. 2000;14(1):59–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chainani-Wu N, Madden E, Silverman S Jr. A case-control study of burning mouth syndrome and sleep dysfunction. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011;112(2):203–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chimenos-Kustner E, Marques-Soares MS. Burning mouth and saliva. Med Oral. 2002;7(4):244–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dahiya P, Kamal R, Kumar M, Niti, Gupta R, Chaudhary K. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause. Int J Prev Med. 2013;4(1):15–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. das Neves de Araujo Lima E, Barbosa NG, Dos Santos AC, AraujoMouraLemos TM, de Souza CM, Trevilatto PC, da Silveira EJ, de Medeiros AM. Comparative analysis of psychological, hormonal, and genetic factors between burning mouth syndrome and secondary oral burning. Pain Med. 2016;17(9):1602–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. de Moura SA, de Sousa JM, Lima DF, Negreiros AN, Silva Fde V, da Costa LJ. Burning mouth syndrome (OD): sialometric and sialochemical analysis and salivary protein profile. Gerodontology. 2007;24(3):173–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. de Souza FT, Teixeira AL, Amaral TM, dos Santos TP, Abreu MH, Silva TA, Kummer A. Psychiatric disorders in burning mouth syndrome. J Psychosom Res. 2012;72(2):142–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. de Souza FT, Kummer A, Silva ML, Amaral TM, Abdo EN, Abreu MH, Silva TA, Teixeira AL. The association of openness personality trait with stress-related salivary biomarkers in burning mouth syndrome. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2015;22(4):250–5.Google Scholar
  34. de Tommaso M, Lavolpe V, Di Venere D, Corsalini M, Vecchio E, Favia G, Sardaro M, Livrea P, Nolano M. A case of unilateral burning mouth syndrome of neuropathic origin. Headache. 2011;51(3):441–3.Google Scholar
  35. Dias Fernandes CS, Salum FG, Bandeira D, Pawlowski J, Luz C, Cherubini K. Salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels in patients with the complaint of burning mouth: a case-control study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;108(4):537–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Donovan KA, Walker LM, Wassersug RJ, Thompson LM, Robinson JW. Psychological effects of androgen-deprivation therapy on men with prostate cancer and their partners. Cancer. 2015;121(24):4286–99.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Eli I, Kleinhauz M, Baht R, Littner M. Antecedents of burning mouth syndrome (glossodynia)–recent life events vs. psychopathologic aspects. J Dent Res. 1994;73(2):567–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Eliav E, Kamran B, Schaham R, Czerninski R, Gracely RH, Benoliel R. Evidence of chorda tympani dysfunction in patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007;138(5):628–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Fedele S, Fricchione G, Porter SR, Mignogna MD. Burning mouth syndrome (stomatodynia). QJM. 2007;100(8):527–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Femiano F. Burning mouth syndrome (OD): an open trial of comparative efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid) with other therapies. Minerva Stomatol. 2002;51(9):405–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Femiano F, Gombos F, Scully C. Burning mouth syndrome: open trial of psychotherapy alone, medication with alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid), and combination therapy. Med Oral. 2004;9(1):8–13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Forabosco A, Criscuolo M, Coukos G, Uccelli E, Weinstein R, Spinato S, Botticelli A, Volpe A. Efficacy of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with oral discomfort. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1992;73(5):570–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Formaker BK, Mott AE, Frank ME. The effects of topical anesthesia on oral burning in burning mouth syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;855:776–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Fortuna G. “The discomfort is still there, but I do not care much about it!” The therapeutic role of the transference relationship between the patient suffering from complex oral sensitivity disorder and the oral health-care provider. Am J Oral Med. 2016;2(1):11–20.Google Scholar
  45. Fortuna G, Pollio A. Comment: probable clindamycin-induced ageusia, xerostomia, and burning mouth syndrome. Ann Pharmacother. 2012a;46(11):1577–8; author reply 1578.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Fortuna G, Pollio A. Drug-induced burning mouth syndrome: a new clinico-pathological entity? J Headache Pain. 2012b;13(8):685–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fortuna G, Di Lorenzo M, Pollio A. Complex oral sensitivity disorder: a reappraisal of current classification of burning mouth syndrome. Oral Dis. 2013;19(7):730–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Gaitonde P, Rostron J, Longman L, Field EA. Burning mouth syndrome and vulvodynia coexisting in the same patient: a case report. Dent Update. 2002;29(2):75–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Galli F, Lodi G, Sardella A, Vegni E. Role of psychological factors in burning mouth syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cephalalgia. 2016.Google Scholar
  50. Glick D, Ben-Aryeh H, Gutman D, Szargel R. Relation between idiopathic glossodynia and salivary flow rate and content. Int J Oral Surg. 1976;5(4):161–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Goins MR, Pitovski DZ. Posttonsillectomy taste distortion: a significant complication. Laryngoscope. 2004;114(7):1206–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gorsky M, Silverman S Jr, Chinn H. Burning mouth syndrome: a review of 98 cases. J Oral Med. 1987;42(1):7–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Gorsky M, Silverman S Jr, Chinn H. Clinical characteristics and management outcome in the burning mouth syndrome. An open study of 130 patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1991;72(2):192–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Granot M, Nagler RM. Association between regional idiopathic neuropathy and salivary involvement as the possible mechanism for oral sensory complaints. J Pain. 2005;6(9):581–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Grushka M. Clinical features of burning mouth syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987;63(1):30–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Grushka M, Sessle B. Taste dysfunction in burning mouth syndrome. Gerodontics. 1988;4(5):256–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Grushka M, Sessle BJ. Burning mouth syndrome. Dent Clin N Am. 1991;35(1):171–84.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Grushka M, Sessle BJ, Miller R. Pain and personality profiles in burning mouth syndrome. Pain. 1987;28(2):155–67.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Grushka M, Epstein J, Mott A. An open-label, dose escalation pilot study of the effect of clonazepam in burning mouth syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1998;86(5):557–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Grushka M, Epstein JB, Gorsky M. Burning mouth syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2002;65(4):615–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Grushka M, Ching V, Epstein J. Burning mouth syndrome. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;63:278–87.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Hakeberg M, Berggren U, Hagglin C, Ahlqwist M. Reported burning mouth symptoms among middle-aged and elderly women. Eur J Oral Sci. 1997;105 (6):539–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hammaren M, Hugoson A. Clinical psychiatric assessment of patients with burning mouth syndrome resisting oral treatment. Swed Dent J. 1989;13(3):77–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The international classification of headache disorders, (3rd edition). Cephalalgia. 2018;38(1):1–211.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0333102417738202.
  65. Heckmann SM, Heckmann JG, Ungethum A, Hujoel P, Hummel T. Gabapentin has little or no effect in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome – results of an open-label pilot study. Eur J Neurol. 2006;13(7):e6–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Heckmann SM, Kirchner E, Grushka M, Wichmann MG, Hummel T. A double-blind study on clonazepam in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Laryngoscope. 2012;122(4):813–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Heiser C, Landis BN, Giger R, Cao Van H, Guinand N, Hormann K, Stuck BA. Taste disturbance following tonsillectomy–a prospective study. Laryngoscope. 2010;120(10):2119–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hyde RJ, Feller RP. Age and sex effects on taste of sucrose, NaCl, citric acid and caffeine. Neurobiol Aging. 1981;2(4):315–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Imura H, Shimada M, Yamazaki Y, Sugimoto K. Characteristic changes of saliva and taste in burning mouth syndrome patients. J Oral Pathol Med. 2016;45(3):231–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ito M, Tokura T, Yoshida K, Nagashima W, Kimura H, Umemura E, … Kurita K. Five patients with burning mouth syndrome in whom an antidepressant (serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor) was not effective, but Pregabalin markedly relieved pain. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2015;38(4):158–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jaaskelainen SK. Pathophysiology of primary burning mouth syndrome. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123(1):71–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jaaskelainen SK, Forssell H, Tenovuo O. Abnormalities of the blink reflex in burning mouth syndrome. Pain. 1997;73(3):455–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jacobs EG, Holsen LM, Lancaster K, Makris N, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Remington A, … Goldstein JM. 17beta-Estradiol differentially regulates stress circuitry activity in healthy and depressed women. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40(3):566–76.Google Scholar
  74. Jerlang BB. Burning mouth syndrome (OD) and the concept of alexithymia–a preliminary study. J Oral Pathol Med. 1997;26(6):249–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Just T, Steiner S, Pau HW. Oral pain perception and taste in burning mouth syndrome. J Oral Pathol Med. 2010;39(1):22–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kaplan I, Levin T, Papoiu AD, Patel N, Patel T, Calderon S, … Yosipovitch G. Thermal sensory and pain thresholds in the tongue and chin change with age, but are not altered in burning mouth syndrome. Skin Res Technol. 2011;17(2):196–200.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Kenchadze R, Iverieli M, Okribelashvili N, Geladze N, Khachapuridze N. The psychological aspects of burning mouth syndrome. Georgian Med News 2011;194:24–28.Google Scholar
  78. Kim HI, Kim YY, Chang JY, Ko JY, Kho HS. Salivary cortisol, 17beta-estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and alpha-amylase in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Oral Dis. 2012;18(6):613–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Klasser GD, Fischer DJ, Epstein JB. Burning mouth syndrome: recognition, understanding, and management. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2008;20(2):255–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Klasser GD, Epstein JB, Villines D. Diagnostic dilemma: the enigma of an oral burning sensation. J Can Dent Assoc. 2011;77:b146.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Klasser GD, Epstein JB, Villines D. Management of burning mouth syndrome. J Mich Dent Assoc. 2012;94(6):43–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kohorst JJ, Bruce AJ, Torgerson RR, Schenck LA, Davis MD. A population-based study of the incidence of burning mouth syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014;89(11):1545–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Koike K, Shinozaki T, Hara K, Noma N, Okada-Ogawa A, Asano M, … Imamura Y. Immune and endocrine function in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Clin J Pain. 2014;30(2):1–173.Google Scholar
  84. Kolkka-Palomaa M, Jaaskelainen SK, Laine MA, Teerijoki-Oksa T, Sandell M, Forssell H. Pathophysiology of primary burning mouth syndrome with special focus on taste dysfunction: a review. Oral Dis. 2015;21(8):937–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Komiyama O, Obara R, Uchida T, Nishimura H, Iida T, Okubo M, … Kawara M. Pain intensity and psychosocial characteristics of patients with burning mouth syndrome and trigeminal neuralgia. J Oral Sci. 2012;54(4):321–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Koszewicz M, Mendak M, Konopka T, Koziorowska-Gawron E, Budrewicz S. The characteristics of autonomic nervous system disorders in burning mouth syndrome and Parkinson disease. J Orofac Pain. 2012;26(4):315–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kuten-Shorrer M, Kelley JM, Sonis ST, Treister NS. Placebo effect in burning mouth syndrome: a systematic review. Oral Dis. 2014;20(3):e1–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Lamey PJ, Lewis MA. Oral medicine in practice: burning mouth syndrome. Br Dent J. 1989;167(6):197–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Li YK, Yang JM, Huang YB, Ren DD, Chi FL. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection. Neural Regen Res. 2015;10(6):989–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lipton JA, Ship JA, Larach-Robinson D. Estimated prevalence and distribution of reported orofacial pain in the United States. J Am Dent Assoc. 1993;124(10):115–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Lopez-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F, Andujar-Mateos P, Sanchez-Siles M, Gomez-Garcia F. Burning mouth syndrome: an update. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2010;15(4):e562–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lopez-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F, De la Mano-Espinosa T. Complementary and alternative medical therapies in patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Altern Complement Med. 2011;17(4):289–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lopez-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F, Molino-Pagan D. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical evaluation of Aloe vera Barbadensis, applied in combination with a tongue protector to treat burning mouth syndrome. J Oral Pathol Med. 2013;42(4):295–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lundy FT, Al-Hashimi I, Rees TD, Lamey PJ. Evaluation of major parotid glycoproteins in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1997;83(2):252–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lynde CB, Grushka M, Walsh SR. Burning mouth syndrome: patch test results from a large case series. J Cutan Med Surg. 2014;18(3):174–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Maina G, Albert U, Gandolfo S, Vitalucci A, Bogetto F. Personality disorders in patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Personal Disord. 2005;19(1):84–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Maresky LS, van der Bijl P, Gird I. Burning mouth syndrome. Evaluation of multiple variables among 85 patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1993;75(3):303–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McMillan R, Forssell H, Buchanan JA, Glenny AM, Weldon JC, Zakrzewska JM. Interventions for treating burning mouth syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;11:CD002779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Mendak-Ziolko M, Konopka T, Bogucki ZA. Evaluation of select neurophysiological, clinical and psychological tests for burning mouth syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114(3):325–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Merksey H, Bogduk N. International Association for the Study of Pain. Descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms. In: Merskey H, Bugduk N, editors. Report by the IASP task force on taxonomy. Seattle: IASP Press; 1994. p. 74.Google Scholar
  101. Mignogna MD, Fedele S, Lo Russo L, Leuci S, Lo Muzio L. The diagnosis of burning mouth syndrome represents a challenge for clinicians. J Orofac Pain. 2005;19(2):168–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Mignogna MD, Adamo D, Schiavone V, Ravel MG, Fortuna G. Burning mouth syndrome responsive to duloxetine: a case report. Pain Med. 2011a;12(3): 466–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mignogna MD, Pollio A, Fortuna G, Leuci S, Ruoppo E, Adamo D, Zarrelli C. Unexplained somatic comorbidities in patients with burning mouth syndrome: a controlled clinical study. J Orofac Pain. 2011b;25(2):131–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Mo X, Zhang J, Fan Y, Svensson P, Wang K. Thermal and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in Chinese patients with burning mouth syndrome–a probable neuropathic pain condition? J Headache Pain. 2015;16:84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Moisset X, Calbacho V, Torres P, Gremeau-Richard C, Dallel R. Co-occurrence of pain symptoms and somatosensory sensitivity in burning mouth syndrome: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2016;11(9):e0163449.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Moreno Gimenez J. Glosodynia before and after diagnosis. Piel. 2015;20:524–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Muzyka BC, De Rossi SS. A review of burning mouth syndrome. Cutis. 1999;64(1):29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Nagashima W, Kimura H, Ito M, Tokura T, Arao M, Aleksic B, … Ozaki N. Effectiveness of duloxetine for the treatment of chronic nonorganic orofacial pain. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2012;35(6):273–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Nagler RM, Hershkovich O. Sialochemical and gustatory analysis in patients with oral sensory complaints. J Pain. 2004;5(1):56–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Nasri-Heir C, Gomes J, Heir GM, Ananthan S, Benoliel R, Teich S, Eliav E. The role of sensory input of the chorda tympani nerve and the number of fungiform papillae in burning mouth syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011;112(1):65–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Palacios-Sanchez B, Moreno-Lopez LA, Cerero-Lapiedra R, Llamas-Martinez S, Esparza-Gomez G. Alpha lipoic acid efficacy in burning mouth syndrome. A controlled clinical trial. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2015;20(4):e435–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Patton LL, Siegel MA, Benoliel R, De Laat A. Management of burning mouth syndrome: systematic review and management recommendations. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103(Suppl):S39 e31–13.Google Scholar
  113. Pavlakis PP, Alexopoulos H, Kosmidis ML, Mamali I, Moutsopoulos HM, Tzioufas AG, Dalakas MC. Peripheral neuropathies in Sjogren’s syndrome: a critical update on clinical features and pathogenetic mechanisms. J Autoimmun. 2012;39(1–2):27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pekiner FN, Demirel GY, Gumru B, Ozbayrak S. Serum cytokine and T regulatory cell levels in patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37(9):528–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Petruzzi M, Lauritano D, De Benedittis M, Baldoni M, Serpico R. Systemic capsaicin for burning mouth syndrome: short-term results of a pilot study. J Oral Pathol Med. 2004;33(2):111–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pinto A, Sollecito TP, DeRossi SS. Burning mouth syndrome. A retrospective analysis of clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. N Y State Dent J. 2003;69(3):18–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Poon R, Su N, Ching V, Darling M, Grushka M. Reduction in unstimulated salivary flow rate in burning mouth syndrome. Br Dent J. 2014;217(7):E14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Prakash S, Ahuja S, Rathod C. Dopa responsive burning mouth syndrome: restless mouth syndrome or oral variant of restless legs syndrome? J Neurol Sci. 2012;320(1–2):156–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Riley JL 3rd, Gilbert GH, Heft MW. Orofacial pain symptom prevalence: selective sex differences in the elderly? Pain. 1998;76(1):97–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rodriguez-Cerdeira C, Sanchez-Blanco E. Treatment of burning mouth syndrome with amisulpride. J Clin Med Res. 2012;4(3):167–71.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Rojo L, Silvestre FJ, Bagan JV, De Vicente T. Psychiatric morbidity in burning mouth syndrome. Psychiatric interview versus depression and anxiety scales. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1993;75(3):308–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rojo L, Silvestre FJ, Bagan JV, De Vicente T. Prevalence of psychopathology in burning mouth syndrome. A comparative study among patients with and without psychiatric disorders and controls. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1994;78(3):312–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Santoro V, Caputo G, Peluso F. Clinical and therapeutic experience in twenty eight patients with burning mouth syndrome. Minerva Stomatol. 2005;54(9):489–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sardella A, Carrassi A. OD: S for syndrome or S for symptom? A reappraisal of the burning mouth syndrome. Minerva Stomatol. 2001;50(7–8):241–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Scala A, Checchi L, Montevecchi M, Marini I, Giamberardino MA. Update on burning mouth syndrome: overview and patient management. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2003;14(4):275–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Scardina GA, Pisano T, Carini F, Valenza V, Messina P. Burning mouth syndrome: an evaluation of in vivo microcirculation. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139(7):940–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Schiavone V, Adamo D, Ventrella G, Morlino M, De Notaris EB, Ravel MG, … Mignogna MD. Anxiety, depression, and pain in burning mouth syndrome: first chicken or egg? Headache. 2012;52(6):1019–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Schobel N, Kyereme J, Minovi A, Dazert S, Bartoshuk L, Hatt H. Sweet taste and chorda tympani transection alter capsaicin-induced lingual pain perception in adult human subjects. Physiol Behav. 2012;107(3): 368–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Silvestre FJ, Silvestre-Rangil J, Tamarit-Santafe C, Bautista D. Application of a capsaicin rinse in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2012;17(1):e1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Silvestre FJ, Silvestre-Rangil J, Lopez-Jornet P. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update. Rev Neurol. 2015;60(10):457–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Simcic D, Pezelj-Ribaric S, Grzic R, Horvat J, Brumini G, Muhvic-Urek M. Detection of salivary interleukin 2 and interleukin 6 in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Mediat Inflamm. 2006;2006(1):54632.Google Scholar
  132. Siviero M, Teixeira MJ, Siqueira JT, Siqueira SR. Central mechanisms in burning mouth syndrome involving the olfactory nerve: a preliminary study. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66(3):509–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Smith KG, Yates JM, Robinson PP. The effect of nerve growth factor on functional recovery after injury to the chorda tympani and lingual nerves. Brain Res. 2004;1020(1–2):62–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Souza FT, Santos TP, Bernardes VF, Teixeira AL, Kummer AM, Silva TA, Abreu MH. The impact of burning mouth syndrome on health-related quality of life. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2011;9:57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Spadari F, Venesia P, Azzi L, Veronesi G, Costantino D, Croveri F, … Tettamanti L. Low basal salivary flow and burning mouth syndrome: new evidence in this enigmatic pathology. J Oral Pathol Med. 2015;44(3): 229–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Steele JC, Bruce AJ, Drage LA, Rogers RS 3rd. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment of 31 patients with sore, burning mouth. Oral Dis. 2008;14(6):529–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Su N, Ching V, Grushka M. Taste disorders: a review. J Can Dent Assoc. 2013;79:d86.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Suarez P, Clark GT. Burning mouth syndrome: an update on diagnosis and treatment methods. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2006;34(8):611–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Sun A, Lin HP, Wang YP, Chen HM, Cheng SJ, Chiang CP. Significant reduction of serum homocysteine level and oral symptoms after different vitamin-supplement treatments in patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Oral Pathol Med. 2013;42(6):474–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. Suri V. Menopause and oral health. J Midlife Health. 2014;5(3):115–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Syrjanen S, Piironen P, Yli-Urpo A. Salivary content of patients with subjective symptoms resembling galvanic pain. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1984;58(4):387–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Tammiala-Salonen T, Soderling E. Protein composition, adhesion, and agglutination properties of saliva in burning mouth syndrome. Scand J Dent Res. 1993;101(4):215–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Tammiala-Salonen T, Hiidenkari T, Parvinen T. Burning mouth in a Finnish adult population. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993;21(2):67–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Tarkkila L, Linna M, Tiitinen A, Lindqvist C, Meurman JH. Oral symptoms at menopause–the role of hormone replacement therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001;92(3):276–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Tatullo M, Marrelli M, Scacco S, Lorusso M, Doria S, Sabatini R, … Inchingolo F. Relationship between oxidative stress and “burning mouth syndrome” in female patients: a scientific hypothesis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2012;16(9):1218–21.Google Scholar
  146. Tavee J, Zhou L. Small fiber neuropathy: a burning problem. Cleve Clin J Med. 2009;76(5):297–305.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Trikkas G, Nikolatou O, Samara C, Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou E, Rabavilas AD, Christodoulou GN. Glossodynia: personality characteristics and psychopathology. Psychother Psychosom. 1996;65(3):163–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Umezaki Y, Takenoshita M, Toyofuku A. Low-dose aripiprazole for refractory burning mouth syndrome. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016;12:1229–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. van der Ploeg HM, van der Wal N, Eijkman MA, van der Waal I. Psychological aspects of patients with burning mouth syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987;63(6):664–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Van Houdenhove B, Joostens P. Burning mouth syndrome. Successful treatment with combined psychotherapy and psychopharmacotherapy. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1995;17(5):385–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. White TL, Kent PF, Kurtz DB, Emko P. Effectiveness of gabapentin for treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130(6): 786–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Yilmaz Z, Renton T, Yiangou Y, Zakrzewska J, Chessell IP, Bountra C, Anand P. Burning mouth syndrome as a trigeminal small fibre neuropathy: increased heat and capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in nerve fibres correlates with pain score. J Clin Neurosci. 2007;14(9):864–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Yilmaz Z, Egbuniwe O, Renton T. The detection of small-fiber neuropathies in burning mouth syndrome and iatrogenic lingual nerve injuries: use of quantitative sensory testing. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2016;30(2): 87–98.Google Scholar
  154. Zakrzewska JM. The burning mouth syndrome remains an enigma. Pain. 1995;62(3):253–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Zakrzewska JM. Medical management of trigeminal neuropathic pains. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010;11(8):1239–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giulio Fortuna
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joel Napenas
    • 2
  • Nan Su
    • 3
  • Miriam Gruskha
    • 4
  • Gary D. Klasser
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic SciencesLouisiana State University School of DentistryNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Department of Oral MedicineCarolinas Medical CenterCharlotteUSA
  3. 3.Norman Bethune College of MedicineJilinChina
  4. 4.Department of DentistryWilliam Osler Hospital (Etobicoke)TorontoCanada
  5. 5.Department of Diagnostic SciencesSchool of Dentistry, Louisiana State University Health Sciences CenterNew OrleansUSA

Personalised recommendations