Neuropathic Orofacial Pain

  • Olga A. Korczeniewska
  • Eli Eliav
  • Rafael BenolielEmail author
Reference work entry


Neuropathic pain (NP) is defined as “pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system.” Neuropathic pain syndromes are relatively common and induce significant suffering with loss of quality of life. In the area of the head and neck, there are a number of well-recognized painful neuropathic disorders affecting the cranial nerves, other regional nerves, and central nervous system structures. This chapter reviews the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of the more common neuropathic pain entities affecting the head and neck region.


Trigeminal Neuropathy Neuralgia Headache Burning mouth syndrome 


  1. Abrahamsen R, Baad-Hansen L, Svensson P. Hypnosis in the management of persistent idiopathic orofacial pain – clinical and psychosocial findings. Pain. 2008;136(1–2):44–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adamo D, Schiavone V, Aria M, Leuci S, Ruoppo E, Dell’Aversana G, et al. Sleep disturbance in patients with burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study. J Orofac Pain. 2013;27(4):304–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aggarwal VR, Lovell K, Peters S, Javidi H, Joughin A, Goldthorpe J. Psychosocial interventions for the management of chronic orofacial pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;11:CD008456.Google Scholar
  4. Agrawal SM, Kambalimath DH. Peripheral neurectomy: a minimally invasive treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. A retrospective study. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2011;10(3):195–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al Quran FA. Psychological profile in burning mouth syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;97(3):339–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Albrektsson T. A multicenter report on osseointegrated oral implants. J Prosthet Dent. 1988;60(1):75–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Albrektsson T, Dahl E, Enbom L, Engevall S, Engquist B, Eriksson AR, et al. Osseointegrated oral implants. A Swedish multicenter study of 8139 consecutively inserted Nobelpharma implants. J Periodontol. 1988;59(5):287–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Albuquerque RJ, de Leeuw R, Carlson CR, Okeson JP, Miller CS, Andersen AH. Cerebral activation during thermal stimulation of patients who have burning mouth disorder: an fMRI study. Pain. 2006;122(3):223–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Alfieri A, Strauss C. Microvascular decompression may be an effective treatment for nervus intermedius neuralgia. J Laryngol Otol. 2011;125(7):765. Author replyPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ali FM, Prasant M, Pai D, Aher VA, Kar S, Safiya T. Peripheral neurectomies: a treatment option for trigeminal neuralgia in rural practice. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2012;3(2):152–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Amir R, Devor M. Functional cross-excitation between afferent A- and C-neurons in dorsal root ganglia. Neuroscience. 2000;95(1):189–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ammori MB, King AT, Siripurapu R, Herwadkar AV, Rutherford SA. Factors influencing decision-making and outcome in the surgical management of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2013;74(2):75–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Amos K, Yeoh SC, Farah CS. Combined topical and systemic clonazepam therapy for the management of burning mouth syndrome: a retrospective pilot study. J Orofac Pain. 2011;25(2):125–30.Google Scholar
  14. Andrei G, Snoeck R. Advances in the treatment of varicella-zoster virus infections. Adv Pharmacol. 2013;67:107–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Antonini G, Di Pasquale A, Cruccu G, Truini A, Morino S, Saltelli G, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging contribution for diagnosing symptomatic neurovascular contact in classical trigeminal neuralgia: a blinded case-control study and meta-analysis. Pain. 2014;155(8):1464–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Arani RB, Soong SJ, Weiss HL, Wood MJ, Fiddian PA, Gnann JW, et al. Phase specific analysis of herpes zoster associated pain data: a new statistical approach. Stat Med. 2001;20(16):2429–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ardekian L, Dodson TB. Complications associated with the placement of dental implants. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2003;15(2):243–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ariai MS, Mallory GW, Pollock BE. Outcomes after microvascular decompression for patients with trigeminal neuralgia and suspected multiple sclerosis. World Neurosurg. 2014;81(3–4):599–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ashkenazi A, Levin M. Three common neuralgias. How to manage trigeminal, occipital, and postherpetic pain. Postgrad Med. 2004;116(3):16–8; 21-4, 31-2 passimPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Attal N, Cruccu G, Baron R, Haanpaa M, Hansson P, Jensen TS, et al. EFNS guidelines on the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain: 2010 revision. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17(9):1113–e88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Baad-Hansen L, List T, Kaube H, Jensen TS, Svensson P. Blink reflexes in patients with atypical odontalgia and matched healthy controls. Exp Brain Res. 2006;172(4):498–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Baad-Hansen L, Leijon G, Svensson P, List T. Comparison of clinical findings and psychosocial factors in patients with atypical odontalgia and temporomandibular disorders. J Orofac Pain. 2008;22(1):7–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Baad-Hansen L, Pigg M, Ivanovic SE, Faris H, List T, Drangsholt M, et al. Chairside intraoral qualitative somatosensory testing: reliability and comparison between patients with atypical odontalgia and healthy controls. J Orofac Pain. 2013a;27(2):165–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Baad-Hansen L, Pigg M, Ivanovic SE, Faris H, List T, Drangsholt M, et al. Intraoral somatosensory abnormalities in patients with atypical odontalgia – a controlled multicenter quantitative sensory testing study. Pain. 2013b;154(8):1287–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Baad-Hansen L, Abrahamsen R, Zachariae R, List T, Svensson P. Somatosensory sensitivity in patients with persistent idiopathic orofacial pain is associated with pain relief from hypnosis and relaxation. Clin J Pain. 2013c;29(6):518–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Barker FG 2nd, Jannetta PJ, Babu RP, Pomonis S, Bissonette DJ, Jho HD. Long-term outcome after operation for trigeminal neuralgia in patients with posterior fossa tumors. J Neurosurg. 1996;84(5):818–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Baron R. Mechanisms of postherpetic neuralgia – we are hot on the scent. Pain. 2008;140(3):395–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Baron R, Mayoral V, Leijon G, Binder A, Steigerwald I, Serpell M. 5% lidocaine medicated plaster versus pregabalin in post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic polyneuropathy: an open-label, non-inferiority two-stage RCT study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25(7):1663–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Barreveld A, Witte J, Chahal H, Durieux ME, Strichartz G. Preventive analgesia by local anesthetics: the reduction of postoperative pain by peripheral nerve blocks and intravenous drugs. Anesth Analg. 2013;116(5):1141–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Barron RP, Benoliel R, Zeltser R, Eliav E, Nahlieli O, Gracely RH. Effect of dexamethasone and dipyrone on lingual and inferior alveolar nerve hypersensitivity following third molar extractions: preliminary report. J Orofac Pain. 2004;18(1):62–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bartoshuk LM, Snyder DJ, Grushka M, Berger AM, Duffy VB, Kveton JF. Taste damage: previously unsuspected consequences. Chem Senses. 2005;30(Suppl 1):i218–i9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bayer E, Racz GB, Miles D, Heavner J. Sphenopalatine ganglion pulsed radiofrequency treatment in 30 patients suffering from chronic face and head pain. Pain Pract. 2005;5(3):223–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Beneng K, Yilmaz Z, Yiangou Y, McParland H, Anand P, Renton T. Sensory purinergic receptor P2X3 is elevated in burning mouth syndrome. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;39(8):815–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Benes L, Shiratori K, Gurschi M, Sure U, Tirakotai W, Krischek B, et al. Is preoperative high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging accurate in predicting neurovascular compression in patients with trigeminal neuralgia? A single-blind study. Neurosurg Rev. 2005;28(2):131–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Beniczky S, Tajti J, Timea Varga E, Vecsei L. Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes. J Neural Transm. 2005;112(6):735–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Benoliel R. Atypical odontalgia: quo vadis? Quintessence Int. 2013;44(6):383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Benoliel R, Eliav E, Elishoov H, Sharav Y. Diagnosis and treatment of persistent pain after trauma to the head and neck. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1994;52(11):1138–47; discussion 47-8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Benoliel R, Eliav E, Tal M. No sympathetic nerve sprouting in rat trigeminal ganglion following painful and non-painful infraorbital nerve neuropathy. Neurosci Lett. 2001;297(3):151–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Benoliel R, Eliav E, Tal M. Strain-dependent modification of neuropathic pain behaviour in the rat hindpaw by a priming painful trigeminal nerve injury. Pain. 2002;97(3):203–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Benoliel R, Birenboim R, Regev E, Eliav E. Neurosensory changes in the infraorbital nerve following zygomatic fractures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005;99(6):657–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Benoliel R, Eliav E, Sharav Y. Self-reports of pain-related awakenings in persistent orofacial pain patients. J Orofac Pain. 2009;23(4):330–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Benoliel R, Zadik Y, Eliav E, Sharav Y. Peripheral painful traumatic trigeminal neuropathy: clinical features in 91 cases and proposal of novel diagnostic criteria. J Orofac Pain. 2012;26(1):49–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Benoliel R, Heir G, Eliav E. Neuropathic orofacial pain. In: Sharav Y, Benoliel R, editors. Orofacial pain & headache. 2nd ed. Chicago: Quintessence International; 2015.Google Scholar
  44. Benoliel R, Zini A, Khan J, Almoznino G, Sharav Y, Haviv Y. Trigeminal neuralgia (part II): factors affecting early pharmacotherapeutic outcome. Cephalalgia. 2016;36(8):747–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Benoliel R, Sharav Y, Haviv Y, Almoznino G. Tic, triggering, and tearing: from CTN to SUNHA. Headache. 2017;57(6):997–1009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Bergdahl M, Bergdahl J. Burning mouth syndrome: prevalence and associated factors. J Oral Pathol Med. 1999;28(8):350–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Berge TI. Incidence of chronic neuropathic pain subsequent to surgical removal of impacted third molars. Acta Odontol Scand. 2002;60(2):108–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Blatow M, Nennig E, Sarpaczki E, Reinhardt J, Schlieter M, Herweh C, et al. Altered somatosensory processing in trigeminal neuralgia. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30(11):3495–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Blumenfeld A, Nikolskaya G. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2013;17(7):343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Bogduk N. An anatomical basis for the neck-tongue syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1981;44(3):202–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Borchers AT, Gershwin ME. Complex regional pain syndrome: a comprehensive and critical review. Autoimmun Rev. 2014;13(3):242–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Borody C. Neck-tongue syndrome. J Manip Physiol Ther. 2004;27(5):e8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Bouhassira D, Chassany O, Gaillat J, Hanslik T, Launay O, Mann C, et al. Patient perspective on herpes zoster and its complications: an observational prospective study in patients aged over 50 years in general practice. Pain. 2012;153(2):342–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Bowsher D. Trigeminal neuralgia: a symptomatic study of 126 successive patients with and without previous interventions. Pain Clinic. 2000;12(2):93–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Brailo V, Zakrzewska JM. Grading the intensity of nondental orofacial pain: identification of cutoff points for mild, moderate, and severe pain. J Pain Res. 2015;8:95–104.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Broggi G, Ferroli P, Franzini A, Servello D, Dones I. Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia: comments on a series of 250 cases, including 10 patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000;68(1):59–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Bruehl S. An update on the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome. Anesthesiology. 2010;113(3):713–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Buchanan JA, Zakrzewska JM. Burning mouth syndrome. BMJ Clin Evid. 2016; p 1301. PMCID: PMC4704679Google Scholar
  59. Bullard DE, Nashold BS Jr. The caudalis DREZ for facial pain. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1997;68(1–4 Pt 1):168–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Bullitt E, Tew JM, Boyd J. Intracranial tumors in patients with facial pain. J Neurosurg. 1986;64(6):865–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Burchiel KJ. Trigeminal neuralgia: new evidence for origins and surgical treatment. Neurosurgery. 2016;63(Suppl 1):52–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Caissie R, Goulet J, Fortin M, Morielli D. Iatrogenic paresthesia in the third division of the trigeminal nerve: 12 years of clinical experience. J Can Dent Assoc. 2005;71(3):185–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Campbell RL, Parks KW, Dodds RN. Chronic facial pain associated with endodontic therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1990;69(3):287–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Carbone M, Pentenero M, Carrozzo M, Ippolito A, Gandolfo S. Lack of efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid in burning mouth syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Pain. 2009;13(5):492–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Carlson CR, Miller CS, Reid KI. Psychosocial profiles of patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Orofac Pain. 2000;14(1):59–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Cavalcanti DR, da Silveira FR. Alpha lipoic acid in burning mouth syndrome – a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Oral Pathol Med. 2009;38(3):254–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FDA approval of an extended period for administering VariZIG for postexposure prophylaxis of varicella [Internet]. 2012 [cited May 9, 2014].Google Scholar
  68. Cerovic R, Juretic M, Gobic MB. Neurectomy of the trigeminal nerve branches: clinical evaluation of an “obsolete” treatment. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009;37(7):388–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Cha J, Kim ST, Kim HJ, Choi JW, Kim HJ, Jeon P, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia: assessment with T2 VISTA and FLAIR VISTA fusion imaging. Eur Radiol. 2011;21(12):2633–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Chacur M, Milligan ED, Gazda LS, Armstrong C, Wang H, Tracey KJ, et al. A new model of sciatic inflammatory neuritis (SIN): induction of unilateral and bilateral mechanical allodynia following acute unilateral peri-sciatic immune activation in rats. Pain. 2001;94(3):231–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Chainani-Wu N, Madden E, Silverman S Jr. A case-control study of burning mouth syndrome and sleep dysfunction. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011;112(2):203–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Chaparro LE, Wiffen PJ, Moore RA, Gilron I. Combination pharmacotherapy for the treatment of neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;7:CD008943.Google Scholar
  73. Chedrawi AK, Fishman MA, Miller G. Neck-tongue syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 2000;22(5):397–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Chen J, Guo ZY, Yang G, Wang X, Tang QY, Cheng YQ, et al. Characterization of neurovascular compression in facial neuralgia patients by 3D high-resolution MRI and image fusion technique. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5(6):476–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Chen N, Li Q, Yang J, Zhou M, Zhou D, He L. Antiviral treatment for preventing postherpetic neuralgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;2:CD006866.Google Scholar
  76. Cheng JS, Lim DA, Chang EF, Barbaro NM. A review of percutaneous treatments for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2013;10:25–33.Google Scholar
  77. Cheshire WP Jr. Defining the role for gabapentin in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: a retrospective study. J Pain. 2002;3(2):137–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Clarke H, Bonin RP, Orser BA, Englesakis M, Wijeysundera DN, Katz J. The prevention of chronic postsurgical pain using gabapentin and pregabalin: a combined systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2012;115(2):428–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Coen PG, Scott F, Leedham-Green M, Nia T, Jamil A, Johnson RW, et al. Predicting and preventing post-herpetic neuralgia: are current risk factors useful in clinical practice? Eur J Pain. 2006;10(8):695–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Cruccu G, Leandri M, Iannetti GD, Mascia A, Romaniello A, Truini A, et al. Small-fiber dysfunction in trigeminal neuralgia: carbamazepine effect on laser-evoked potentials. Neurology. 2001;56(12):1722–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Cui W, Yu X, Zhang H. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility and the pain severity in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia patients. J Headache Pain. 2014;15:42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Danesh-Sani SA, Rahimdoost A, Soltani M, Ghiyasi M, Haghdoost N, Sabzali-Zanjankhah S. Clinical assessment of orofacial manifestations in 500 patients with multiple sclerosis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;71(2):290–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Danhauer SC, Miller CS, Rhodus NL, Carlson CR. Impact of criteria-based diagnosis of burning mouth syndrome on treatment outcome. J Orofac Pain. 2002;16(4):305–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. de Moraes M, do Amaral Bezerra BA, da Rocha Neto PC, de Oliveira Soares AC, Pinto LP, de Lisboa Lopes Costa A. Randomized trials for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome: an evidence-based review of the literature. J Oral Pathol Med. 2012;41(4):281–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. de Ru JA, van Benthem PP. Combination therapy is preferable for patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Otol Neurotol. 2011;32(5):852–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. De Simone R, Marano E, Brescia Morra V, Ranieri A, Ripa P, Esposito M, et al. A clinical comparison of trigeminal neuralgic pain in patients with and without underlying multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci. 2005;26(Suppl 2):s150–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. de Siqueira SR, Nobrega JC, Valle LB, Teixeira MJ, de Siqueira JT. Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: clinical aspects and dental procedures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;98(3):311–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. de Souza FT, Amaral TM, dos Santos TP, Abdo EN, Aguiar MC, Teixeira AL, et al. Burning mouth syndrome: a therapeutic approach involving mechanical salivary stimulation. Headache. 2012;52(6):1026–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Degn J, Brennum J. Surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Results from the use of glycerol injection, microvascular decompression, and rhizotomia. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152(12):2125–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Delvaux V, Schoenen J. New generation anti-epileptics for facial pain and headache. Acta Neurol Belg. 2001;101(1):42–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Demant DT, Lund K, Finnerup NB, Vollert J, Maier C, Segerdahl MS, et al. Pain relief with lidocaine 5% patch in localized peripheral neuropathic pain in relation to pain phenotype: a randomised, double-blind, and placebo-controlled, phenotype panel study. Pain. 2015;156(11):2234–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Derbyshire SW, Jones AK, Devani P, Friston KJ, Feinmann C, Harris M, et al. Cerebral responses to pain in patients with atypical facial pain measured by positron emission tomography. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994;57(10):1166–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Derry S, Moore RA. Topical capsaicin (low concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;9:CD010111.Google Scholar
  94. Derry S, Sven-Rice A, Cole P, Tan T, Moore RA. Topical capsaicin (high concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;2:CD007393.Google Scholar
  95. DeSouza DD, Hodaie M, Davis KD. Abnormal trigeminal nerve microstructure and brain white matter in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Pain. 2014;155(1):37–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Devor M. Ectopic discharge in Abeta afferents as a source of neuropathic pain. Exp Brain Res. 2009;196(1):115–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Devor M, Govrin-Lippmann R, Rappaport ZH. Mechanism of trigeminal neuralgia: an ultrastructural analysis of trigeminal root specimens obtained during microvascular decompression surgery. J Neurosurg. 2002a;96(3):532–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Devor M, Amir R, Rappaport ZH. Pathophysiology of trigeminal neuralgia: the ignition hypothesis. Clin J Pain. 2002b;18(1):4–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Devor M, Govrin-Lippmann R, Rappaport ZH, Tasker RR, Dostrovsky JO. Cranial root injury in glossopharyngeal neuralgia: electron microscopic observations. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2002c;96(3):603–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Devor M, Wood I, Sharav Y, Zakrzewska JM. Trigeminal neuralgia during sleep. Pain Pract. 2008;8(4):263–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Di Stefano G, La Cesa S, Truini A, Cruccu G. Natural history and outcome of 200 outpatients with classical trigeminal neuralgia treated with carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine in a tertiary centre for neuropathic pain. J Headache Pain. 2014;15:34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Di Stefano G, Tinelli E, Truini A. An unusual case of simultaneous bilateral trigeminal neuralgia due to multiple sclerosis. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2017a;31(4):e4–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Di Stefano G, Maarbjerg S, Nurmikko T, Truini A, Cruccu G. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia. Cephalalgia. 2017b. Scholar
  104. Dostrovsky JO. Trigeminal postherpetic neuralgia postmortem: clinically unilateral, pathologically bilateral. In: Devor M, Rowbotham MC, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z, editors. Proceedings of the 9th world congress on pain. Seattle: IASP Press; 2000. p. 733–9.Google Scholar
  105. Dublin P, Hanani M. Satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia: their possible contribution to inflammatory pain. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21(5):592–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Duhmke RM, Cornblath DD, Hollingshead JR. Tramadol for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;2:CD003726.Google Scholar
  107. Durham J, Exley C, John MT, Nixdorf DR. Persistent dentoalveolar pain: the patient’s experience. J Orofac Pain. 2013;27(1):6–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Dworkin RH, Nagasako EM, Johnson RW, Griffin DR. Acute pain in herpes zoster: the famciclovir database project. Pain. 2001;94(1):113–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Dworkin RH, Backonja M, Rowbotham MC, Allen RR, Argoff CR, Bennett GJ, et al. Advances in neuropathic pain: diagnosis, mechanisms, and treatment recommendations. Arch Neurol. 2003;60(11):1524–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Dworkin RH, Turk DC, Farrar JT, Haythornthwaite JA, Jensen MP, Katz NP, et al. Core outcome measures for chronic pain clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations. Pain. 2005;113(1–2):9–19.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Dworkin RH, Johnson RW, Breuer J, Gnann JW, Levin MJ, Backonja M, et al. Recommendations for the management of herpes zoster. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(Suppl 1):S1–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Dworkin RH, Gnann JW Jr, Oaklander AL, Raja SN, Schmader KE, Whitley RJ. Diagnosis and assessment of pain associated with herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. J Pain. 2008;9(1 Suppl 1):S37–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Dworkin RH, O’Connor AB, Audette J, Baron R, Gourlay GK, Haanpaa ML, et al. Recommendations for the pharmacological management of neuropathic pain: an overview and literature update. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010a;85(3 Suppl):S3–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Dworkin RH, McDermott MP, Raja SN. Preventing chronic postsurgical pain: how much of a difference makes a difference? Anesthesiology. 2010b;112(3):516–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Eisenberg E, McNicol ED, Carr DB. Efficacy and safety of opioid agonists in the treatment of neuropathic pain of nonmalignant origin: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2005;293(24):3043–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Eliav E, Tal M, Benoliel R. Experimental malignancy in the rat induces early hypersensitivity indicative of neuritis. Pain. 2004;110(3):727–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Eliav E, Gracely RH, Nahlieli O, Benoliel R. Evidence for chorda tympani dysfunction in burning mouth syndrome patients. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007;138(5):628–33.Google Scholar
  118. Eliav E, Kamran B, Schaham R, Czerninski R, Gracely RH, Benoliel R. Evidence of chorda tympani dysfunction in patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007;138(5):628–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Elisevich K, Stratford J, Bray G, Finlayson M. Neck tongue syndrome: operative management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1984;47(4):407–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Erdem E, Alkan A. Peripheral glycerol injections in the treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: retrospective analysis of 157 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;59(10):1176–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Esaki T, Osada H, Nakao Y, Yamamoto T, Maeda M, Miyazaki T, et al. Surgical management for glossopharyngeal neuralgia associated with cardiac syncope: two case reports. Br J Neurosurg. 2007;21(6):599–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Evans RW, Agostoni E. Persistent idiopathic facial pain. Headache. 2006;46(8):1298–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Fardy MJ, Zakrzewska JM, Patton DW. Peripheral surgical techniques for the management of trigeminal neuralgia – alcohol and glycerol injections. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1994;129(3–4):181–4; discussion 5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Farole A, Jamal BT. A bioabsorbable collagen nerve cuff (NeuraGen) for repair of lingual and inferior alveolar nerve injuries: a case series. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66(10):2058–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Femiano F. Statistical survey of afferent pathologies during a 5-year study in the oral pathology Department at the Second University of Naples. Minerva Stomatol. 2002a;51(3):73–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Femiano F. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS): an open trial of comparative efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid) with other therapies. Minerva Stomatol. 2002b;51(9):405–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Femiano F. Damage to taste system and oral pain: burning mouth syndrome. Minerva Stomatol. 2004;53(9):471–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Femiano F, Scully C. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS): double blind controlled study of alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid) therapy. J Oral Pathol Med. 2002;31(5):267–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Femiano F, Gombos F, Scully C. Burning mouth syndrome: the efficacy of lipoic acid on subgroups. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004a;18(6):676–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Femiano F, Gombos F, Scully C. Burning mouth syndrome: open trial of psychotherapy alone, medication with alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid), and combination therapy. Med Oral. 2004b;9(1):8–13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Fernandez Rodriguez B, Simonet C, Cerdan DM, Morollon N, Guerrero P, Tabernero C, et al. Familial classic trigeminal neuralgia. Neurologia. 2017.Google Scholar
  132. Finnerup NB, Otto M, McQuay HJ, Jensen TS, Sindrup SH. Algorithm for neuropathic pain treatment: an evidence based proposal. Pain. 2005;118(3):289–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Finnerup NB, Sindrup SH, Jensen TS. The evidence for pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2010;150(3):573–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Finnerup NB, Attal N, Haroutounian S, McNicol E, Baron R, Dworkin RH, et al. Pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2015;14(2):162–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Fischbach F, Lehmann TN, Ricke J, Bruhn H. Vascular compression in glossopharyngeal neuralgia: demonstration by high-resolution MRI at 3 tesla. Neuroradiology. 2003;45(11):810-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Fitzek S, Baumgartner U, Fitzek C, Magerl W, Urban P, Thomke F, et al. Mechanisms and predictors of chronic facial pain in lateral medullary infarction. Ann Neurol. 2001;49(4):493–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Foley PL, Vesterinen HM, Laird BJ, Sena ES, Colvin LA, Chandran S, et al. Prevalence and natural history of pain in adults with multiple sclerosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain. 2013;154(5):632–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Formaker BK, Frank ME. Taste function in patients with oral burning. Chem Senses. 2000;25(5):575–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Forssell H, Jaaskelainen S, Tenovuo O, Hinkka S. Sensory dysfunction in burning mouth syndrome. Pain. 2002;99(1–2):41–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Forssell H, Tasmuth T, Tenovuo O, Hampf G, Kalso E. Venlafaxine in the treatment of atypical facial pain: a randomized controlled trial. J Orofac Pain. 2004;18(2):131–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Forssell H, Tenovuo O, Silvoniemi P, Jaaskelainen SK. Differences and similarities between atypical facial pain and trigeminal neuropathic pain. Neurology. 2007;69(14):1451–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Forssell H, Teerijoki-Oksa T, Kotiranta U, Kantola R, Back M, Vuorjoki-Ranta TR, et al. Pain and pain behavior in burning mouth syndrome: a pain diary study. J Orofac Pain. 2012;26(2):117–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Fortin CJ, Biller J. Neck tongue syndrome. Headache. 1985;25(5):255–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Fransen P. Cost-effectiveness in the surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia. Acta Neurol Belg. 2012;112(3):245–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Freemont AJ, Millac P. The place of peripheral neurectomy in the management of trigeminal neuralgia. Postgrad Med J. 1981;57(664):75–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Frese A, Husstedt IW, Ringelstein EB, Evers S. Pharmacologic treatment of central post-stroke pain. Clin J Pain. 2006;22(3):252–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Fried K, Bongenhielm U, Boissonade FM, Robinson PP. Nerve injury-induced pain in the trigeminal system. Neuroscientist. 2001;7(2):155–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Fromm GH, Graff-Radford SB, Terrence CF, Sweet WH. Pre-trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology. 1990;40(10):1493–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Gajjar TM, Anderson LI, Dluzen DE. Acute effects of estrogen upon methamphetamine induced neurotoxicity of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. J Neural Transm. 2003;110(11):1215–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Galli U, Ettlin DA, Palla S, Ehlert U, Gaab J. Do illness perceptions predict pain-related disability and mood in chronic orofacial pain patients? A 6-month follow-up study. Eur J Pain. 2010;14(5):550–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Gambarini G, Plotino G, Grande NM, Testarelli L, Prencipe M, Messineo D, et al. Differential diagnosis of endodontic-related inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia with cone beam computed tomography: a case report. Int Endod J. 2011;44(2):176–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Gaul C, Hastreiter P, Duncker A, Naraghi R. Diagnosis and neurosurgical treatment of glossopharyngeal neuralgia: clinical findings and 3-D visualization of neurovascular compression in 19 consecutive patients. J Headache Pain. 2011;12(5):527–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Gaul C, Liesering-Latta E, Schafer B, Fritsche G, Holle D. Integrated multidisciplinary care of headache disorders: a narrative review. Cephalalgia. 2016;36(12):1181–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Gelfand AA, Johnson H, Lenaerts ME, Litwin JR, De Mesa C, Bogduk N, et al. Neck-tongue syndrome: a systematic review. Cephalalgia. 2017;38:374–82. Scholar
  155. Gershon AA, Gershon MD. Pathogenesis and current approaches to control of varicella-zoster virus infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013;26(4):728–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Gershon AA, Gershon MD, Breuer J, Levin MJ, Oaklander AL, Griffiths PD. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of herpes zoster. J Clin Virol. 2010;48(Suppl 1):S2–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Gilron I, Booher SL, Rowan JS, Max MB. Topiramate in trigeminal neuralgia: a randomized, placebo-controlled multiple crossover pilot study. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2001;24(2):109–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Gilron I, Bailey JM, Tu D, Holden RR, Weaver DF, Houlden RL. Morphine, gabapentin, or their combination for neuropathic pain. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(13):1324–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Gilron I, Bailey JM, Tu D, Holden RR, Jackson AC, Houlden RL. Nortriptyline and gabapentin, alone and in combination for neuropathic pain: a double-blind, randomised controlled crossover trial. Lancet. 2009;374(9697):1252–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Gilron I, Tu D, Holden RR, Jackson AC, DuMerton-Shore D. Combination of morphine with nortriptyline for neuropathic pain. Pain. 2015;156(8):1440–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Goh CL, Khoo L. A retrospective study of the clinical presentation and outcome of herpes zoster in a tertiary dermatology outpatient referral clinic. Int J Dermatol. 1997;36(9):667–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Goldani LZ, da Silva LF, Dora JM. Ramsay Hunt syndrome in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34(8):e552–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Gomes AC, Vasconcelos BC, Oliveira e Silva ED, da Silva LC. de Lingual nerve damage after mandibular third molar surgery: a randomized clinical trial. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63(10):1443–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Granot M, Nagler RM. Association between regional idiopathic neuropathy and salivary involvement as the possible mechanism for oral sensory complaints. J Pain. 2005;6(9):581–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. Gregg JM. Neuropathic complications of mandibular implant surgery: review and case presentations. Ann R Australas Coll Dent Surg. 2000;15:176–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Gremeau-Richard C, Woda A, Navez ML, Attal N, Bouhassira D, Gagnieu MC, et al. Topical clonazepam in stomatodynia: a randomised placebo-controlled study. Pain. 2004;108(1–2):51–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Gronseth G, Cruccu G, Alksne J, Argoff C, Brainin M, Burchiel K, et al. Practice parameter: the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (an evidence-based review): report of the quality standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the European Federation of Neurological Societies. Neurology. 2008;71(15):1183–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Grushka M, Epstein JB, Gorsky M. Burning mouth syndrome and other oral sensory disorders: a unifying hypothesis. Pain Res Manag. 2003;8(3):133–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Guinto G, Guinto Y. Nervus intermedius. World Neurosurg. 2013;79(5–6):653–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Guler N, Durmus E, Tuncer S. Long-term follow-up of patients with atypical facial pain treated with amitriptyline. N Y State Dent J. 2005;71(4):38–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Haanpaa M, Laippala P, Nurmikko T. Pain and somatosensory dysfunction in acute herpes zoster. Clin J Pain. 1999;15(2):78–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. Haas DA. Articaine and paresthesia: epidemiological studies. J Am Coll Dent. 2006;73(3):5–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. Haas DA, Lennon D. A 21 year retrospective study of reports of paresthesia following local anesthetic administration. J Can Dent Assoc. 1995;61(4):319–20, 23-6, 29-30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Hagelberg N, Forssell H, Rinne JO, Scheinin H, Taiminen T, Aalto S, et al. Striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in burning mouth syndrome. Pain. 2003a;101(1–2):149–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. Hagelberg N, Forssell H, Aalto S, Rinne JO, Scheinin H, Taiminen T, et al. Altered dopamine D2 receptor binding in atypical facial pain. Pain. 2003b;106(1–2):43–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Haines SJ, Chittum CJ. Which operation for trigeminal neuralgia. Pract Neurol. 2003;3:30–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Hals EKB, Stubhaug A. Mental and somatic co-morbidities in chronic orofacial pain conditions: pain patients in need of multiprofessional team approach. Scand J Pain. 2011;2(4):153–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Hamlyn PJ. Neurovascular relationships in the posterior cranial fossa, with special reference to trigeminal neuralgia. 2. Neurovascular compression of the trigeminal nerve in cadaveric controls and patients with trigeminal neuralgia: quantification and influence of method. Clin Anat. 1997a;10(6):380–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Hamlyn PJ. Neurovascular relationships in the posterior cranial fossa, with special reference to trigeminal neuralgia. 1. Review of the literature and development of a new method of vascular injection-filling in cadaveric controls. Clin Anat. 1997b;10(6):371–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Han SR, Yeo SP, Lee MK, Bae YC, Ahn DK. Early dexamethasone relieves trigeminal neuropathic pain. J Dent Res. 2010;89(9):915–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Hanani M. Satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia: from form to function. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2005;48(3):457–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Han-Bing S, Wei-Guo Z, Jun Z, Ning L, Jian-Kang S, Yu C. Predicting the outcome of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia using magnetic resonance tomographic angiography. J Neuroimaging. 2010;20(4):345–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. Hanna M, O’Brien C, Wilson MC. Prolonged-release oxycodone enhances the effects of existing gabapentin therapy in painful diabetic neuropathy patients. Eur J Pain. 2008;12(6):804–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Hans G, Sabatowski R, Binder A, Boesl I, Rogers P, Baron R. Efficacy and tolerability of a 5% lidocaine medicated plaster for the topical treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia: results of a long-term study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25(5):1295–305.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. Hansen AP, Marcussen NS, Klit H, Andersen G, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS. Pain following stroke: a prospective study. Eur J Pain. 2012;16(8):1128–36.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. Harden RN, Bruehl S, Perez RS, Birklein F, Marinus J, Maihofner C, et al. Validation of proposed diagnostic criteria (the “Budapest criteria”) for complex regional pain syndrome. Pain. 2010;150(2):268–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Hauser J, Hsu B, Nader ND. Inflammatory processes in complex regional pain syndromes. Immunol Investig. 2013;42(4):263–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Haviv Y, Zadik Y, Sharav Y, Benoliel R. Painful traumatic trigeminal neuropathy: an open study on the pharmacotherapeutic response to stepped treatment. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2014;28(1):52–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  189. Haviv Y, Khan J, Zini A, Almoznino G, Sharav Y, Benoliel R. Trigeminal neuralgia (part I): revisiting the clinical phenotype. Cephalalgia. 2016;36(8):730–46.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalalgia. 2018;38(1):1–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Heckmann SM, Kirchner E, Grushka M, Wichmann MG, Hummel T. A double-blind study on clonazepam in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Laryngoscope. 2012;122(4):813–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Heir G, Karolchek S, Kalladka M, Vishwanath A, Gomes J, Khatri R, et al. Use of topical medication in orofacial neuropathic pain: a retrospective study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105(4):466–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. Heir GM, Nasri-Heir C, Thomas D, Puchimada BP, Khan J, Eliav E, et al. Complex regional pain syndrome following trigeminal nerve injury: report of 2 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114(6):733–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Henson CF, Goldman HW, Rosenwasser RH, Downes MB, Bednarz G, Pequignot EC, et al. Glycerol rhizotomy versus gamma knife radiosurgery for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: an analysis of patients treated at one institution. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;63(1):82–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. Herweh C, Kress B, Rasche D, Tronnier V, Troger J, Sartor K, et al. Loss of anisotropy in trigeminal neuralgia revealed by diffusion tensor imaging. Neurology. 2007;68(10):776–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Higuchi KW, Folmer T, Kultje C. Implant survival rates in partially edentulous patients: a 3-year prospective multicenter study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1995;53(3):264–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Hillerup S, Jensen RH, Ersboll BK. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity? J Am Dent Assoc. 2011;142(5):531–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Horinek D, Brezova V, Nimsky C, Belsan T, Martinkovic L, Masopust V, et al. The MRI volumetry of the posterior fossa and its substructures in trigeminal neuralgia: a validated study. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151(6):669–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Hu N, Dougherty C. Neck-tongue syndrome. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2016;20(4):27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Hu WH, Zhang K, Zhang JG. Atypical trigeminal neuralgia: a consequence of central sensitization? Med Hypotheses. 2010;75(1):65–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Huang Y, Jacobs R, Van Dessel J, Bornstein MM, Lambrichts I, Politis C. A systematic review on the innervation of peri-implant tissues with special emphasis on the influence of implant placement and loading protocols. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2015;26(7):737–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Huynh-Le P, Matsushima T, Hisada K, Matsumoto K. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia due to an epidermoid tumour in the cerebellopontine angle. J Clin Neurosci. 2004;11(7):758–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. IASP Taxonomy [Internet]. IASP. 2012 [cited 2/2014]. Available from:
  204. Ilfeld BM. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks: a review of the published evidence. Anesth Analg. 2011;113(4):904–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Inglese M, Makani S, Johnson G, Cohen BA, Silver JA, Gonen O, et al. Diffuse axonal injury in mild traumatic brain injury: a diffusion tensor imaging study. J Neurosurg. 2005;103(2):298–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Ishikawa M, Nishi S, Aoki T, Takase T, Wada E, Ohwaki H, et al. Operative findings in cases of trigeminal neuralgia without vascular compression: proposal of a different mechanism. J Clin Neurosci. 2002;9(2):200–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Israel HA, Ward JD, Horrell B, Scrivani SJ. Oral and maxillofacial surgery in patients with chronic orofacial pain. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;61(6):662–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Ito M, Kurita K, Ito T, Arao M. Pain threshold and pain recovery after experimental stimulation in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2002;56(2):161–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Jaaskelainen SK. The utility of clinical neurophysiological and quantitative sensory testing for trigeminal neuropathy. J Orofac Pain. 2004;18(4):355–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Jaaskelainen SK. Pathophysiology of primary burning mouth syndrome. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123(1):71–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Jaaskelainen SK, Forssell H, Tenovuo O. Abnormalities of the blink reflex in burning mouth syndrome. Pain. 1997;73(3):455–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Jaaskelainen SK, Forssell H, Tenovuo O. Electrophysiological testing of the trigeminofacial system: aid in the diagnosis of atypical facial pain. Pain. 1999;80(1–2):191–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Janig W, Baron R. Experimental approach to CRPS. Pain. 2004;108(1–2):3–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Jawahar A, Wadhwa R, Berk C, Caldito G, DeLaune A, Ampil F, et al. Assessment of pain control, quality of life, and predictors of success after gamma knife surgery for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurg Focus. 2005;18(5):E8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Jensen TS, Finnerup NB. Allodynia and hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain: clinical manifestations and mechanisms. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13(9):924–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Johansen A, Schirmer H, Stubhaug A, Nielsen CS. Persistent post-surgical pain and experimental pain sensitivity in the Tromso study: comorbid pain matters. Pain. 2014;155(2):341–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Jones AK, Kitchen ND, Watabe H, Cunningham VJ, Jones T, Luthra SK, et al. Measurement of changes in opioid receptor binding in vivo during trigeminal neuralgic pain using [11C] diprenorphine and positron emission tomography. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1999;19(7):803–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Juhl GI, Jensen TS, Norholt SE, Svensson P. Central sensitization phenomena after third molar surgery: a quantitative sensory testing study. Eur J Pain. 2008;12(1):116–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Jung BF, Johnson RW, Griffin DR, Dworkin RH. Risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia in patients with herpes zoster. Neurology. 2004;62(9):1545–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Juodzbalys G, Wang HL, Sabalys G. Injury of the inferior alveolar nerve during implant placement: a literature review. J Oral Maxillofac Res. 2011;2(1):e1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Juodzbalys G, Wang HL, Sabalys G, Sidlauskas A, Galindo-Moreno P. Inferior alveolar nerve injury associated with implant surgery. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2013;24(2):183–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Jurgens TP, Muller P, Seedorf H, Regelsberger J, May A. Occipital nerve block is effective in craniofacial neuralgias but not in idiopathic persistent facial pain. J Headache Pain. 2012;13(3):199–213.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Kalkanis SN, Eskandar EN, Carter BS, Barker FG 2nd. Microvascular decompression surgery in the United States, 1996 to 2000: mortality rates, morbidity rates, and the effects of hospital and surgeon volumes. Neurosurgery. 2003;52(6):1251–61; discussion 61-2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Kandan SR, Khan S, Jeyaretna DS, Lhatoo S, Patel NK, Coakham HB. Neuralgia of the glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves: long-term outcome following surgical treatment and literature review. Br J Neurosurg. 2010;24(4):441–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Kanpolat Y, Savas A, Ugur HC, Bozkurt M. The trigeminal tract and nucleus procedures in treatment of atypical facial pain. Surg Neurol. 2005;64(Suppl 2):S96–100; discussion S-1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Katusic S, Beard CM, Bergstralh E, Kurland LT. Incidence and clinical features of trigeminal neuralgia, Rochester, Minnesota, 1945-1984. Ann Neurol. 1990;27(1):89–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Kelly DJ, Ahmad M, Brull SJ. Preemptive analgesia I: physiological pathways and pharmacological modalities. Can J Anaesth. 2001a;48(10):1000–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Kelly DJ, Ahmad M, Brull SJ. Preemptive analgesia II: recent advances and current trends. Can J Anaesth. 2001b;48(11):1091–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Kim YH, Chang MY, Jung HH, Park YS, Lee SH, Lee JH, et al. Prognosis of Ramsay Hunt syndrome presenting as cranial polyneuropathy. Laryngoscope. 2010;120(11):2270–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Kinishi M, Amatsu M, Mohri M, Saito M, Hasegawa T, Hasegawa S. Acyclovir improves recovery rate of facial nerve palsy in Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2001;28(3):223–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Klasser GD, Kugelmann AM, Villines D, Bradford JR. The prevalence of persistent pain after nonsurgical root canal. Quintessence Int. 2011;42:259–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Klit H, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS. Clinical characteristics of central poststroke pain. In: Henry JL, Panju A, Yashpal K, editors. Central neuropathic pain: focus on poststroke pain. Seattle: IASP Press; 2007. p. 27–41.Google Scholar
  233. Ko JY, Sheen TS, Hsu MM. Herpes zoster oticus treated with acyclovir and prednisolone: clinical manifestations and analysis of prognostic factors. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2000;25(2):139–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Ko JY, Kim MJ, Lee SG, Kho HS. Outcome predictors affecting the efficacy of clonazepam therapy for the management of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012;55(3):755–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Ko AL, Lee A, Raslan AM, Ozpinar A, McCartney S, Burchiel KJ. Trigeminal neuralgia without neurovascular compression presents earlier than trigeminal neuralgia with neurovascular compression. J Neurosurg. 2015;123(6):1519–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Koopman JS, Dieleman JP, Huygen FJ, de Mos M, Martin CG, Sturkenboom MC. Incidence of facial pain in the general population. Pain. 2009;147(1–3):122–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. Kouzounias K, Lind G, Schechtmann G, Winter J, Linderoth B. Comparison of percutaneous balloon compression and glycerol rhizotomy for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2010;113(3):486–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Kress B, Schindler M, Rasche D, Hahnel S, Tronnier V, Sartor K, et al. MRI volumetry for the preoperative diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia. Eur Radiol. 2005;15(7):1344–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Kuhn WF, Kuhn SC, Gilberstadt H. Occipital neuralgias: clinical recognition of a complicated headache. A case series and literature review. J Orofac Pain. 1997;11(2):158–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Kuncz A, Voros E, Barzo P, Tajti J, Milassin P, Mucsi Z, et al. Comparison of clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance angiographic (MRA) results in patients with trigeminal neuralgia and persistent idiopathic facial pain. Medium-term outcome after microvascular decompression of cases with positive MRA findings. Cephalalgia. 2006;26(3):266–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Lambru G, Matharu MS. SUNCT, SUNA and trigeminal neuralgia: different disorders or variants of the same disorder? Curr Opin Neurol. 2014;27(3):325–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Lamey PJ, Freeman R, Eddie SA, Pankhurst C, Rees T. Vulnerability and presenting symptoms in burning mouth syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005;99(1):48–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Lance JW, Anthony M. Neck-tongue syndrome on sudden turning of the head. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1980;43(2):97–101.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Landau R, Kraft JC, Flint LY, Carvalho B, Richebe P, Cardoso M, et al. An experimental paradigm for the prediction of post-operative pain (PPOP). J Vis Exp. 2010;35.Google Scholar
  245. Lang E, Kaltenhauser M, Seidler S, Mattenklodt P, Neundorfer B. Persistent idiopathic facial pain exists independent of somatosensory input from the painful region: findings from quantitative sensory functions and somatotopy of the primary somatosensory cortex. Pain. 2005;118(1–2):80–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Lauria G, Majorana A, Borgna M, Lombardi R, Penza P, Padovani A, et al. Trigeminal small-fiber sensory neuropathy causes burning mouth syndrome. Pain. 2005;115(3):332–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Lazzara R, Siddiqui AA, Binon P, Feldman SA, Weiner R, Phillips R, et al. Retrospective multicenter analysis of 3i endosseous dental implants placed over a five-year period. Clin Oral Implants Res. 1996;7(1):73–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Leal PR, Hermier M, Froment JC, Souza MA, Cristino-Filho G, Sindou M. Preoperative demonstration of the neurovascular compression characteristics with special emphasis on the degree of compression, using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging: a prospective study, with comparison to surgical findings, in 100 consecutive patients who underwent microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152(5):817–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Leal PR, Roch JA, Hermier M, Souza MA, Cristino-Filho G, Sindou M. Structural abnormalities of the trigeminal root revealed by diffusion tensor imaging in patients with trigeminal neuralgia caused by neurovascular compression: a prospective, double-blind, controlled study. Pain. 2011;152(10):2357–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Lee MC, Tracey I. Imaging pain: a potent means for investigating pain mechanisms in patients. Br J Anaesth. 2013;111(1):64–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Lee A, McCartney S, Burbidge C, Raslan AM, Burchiel KJ. Trigeminal neuralgia occurs and recurs in the absence of neurovascular compression. J Neurosurg. 2014;120(5):1048–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Leonard G, Goffaux P, Mathieu D, Blanchard J, Kenny B, Marchand S. Evidence of descending inhibition deficits in atypical but not classical trigeminal neuralgia. Pain. 2009;147(1–3):217–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Liesegang TJ. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus natural history, risk factors, clinical presentation, and morbidity. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(2 Suppl):S3–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Lindholm P, Lamusuo S, Taiminen T, Pesonen U, Lahti A, Virtanen A, et al. Right secondary somatosensory cortex-a promising novel target for the treatment of drug-resistant neuropathic orofacial pain with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Pain. 2015;156(7):1276–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. List T, Leijon G, Svensson P. Somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia: a case-control study. Pain. 2008;139(2):333–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Liu CN, Michaelis M, Amir R, Devor M. Spinal nerve injury enhances subthreshold membrane potential oscillations in DRG neurons: relation to neuropathic pain. J Neurophysiol. 2000;84(1):205–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Lobb WK, Zakariasen KL, McGrath PJ. Endodontic treatment outcomes: do patients perceive problems? J Am Dent Assoc. 1996;127(5):597–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Loescher AR, Radatz M, Kemeny A, Rowe J. Stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia: outcomes and complications. Br J Neurosurg. 2012;26(1):45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Lopez BC, Hamlyn PJ, Zakrzewska JM. Systematic review of ablative neurosurgical techniques for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2004;54(4):973–82; discussion 82-3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Lopez-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F, Leon-Espinosa S. Efficacy of alpha lipoic acid in burning mouth syndrome: a randomized, placebo-treatment study. J Oral Rehabil. 2009;36(1):52–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Lopez-Lopez J, Estrugo-Devesa A, Jane-Salas E, Segura-Egea JJ. Inferior alveolar nerve injury resulting from overextension of an endodontic sealer: non-surgical management using the GABA analogue pregabalin. Int Endod J. 2012;45(1):98–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Love S, Coakham HB. Trigeminal neuralgia: pathology and pathogenesis. Brain. 2001;124(Pt 12):2347–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Love S, Hilton DA, Coakham HB. Central demyelination of the Vth nerve root in trigeminal neuralgia associated with vascular compression. Brain Pathol. 1998;8(1):1–11; discussion -2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Lunn MP, Hughes RA, Wiffen PJ. Duloxetine for treating painful neuropathy, chronic pain or fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;1:CD007115.Google Scholar
  265. Lynch ME, Cesar-Rittenberg P, Hohmann AG. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot trial with extension using an oral mucosal cannabinoid extract for treatment of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2014;47(1):166–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Maarbjerg S, Gozalov A, Olesen J, Bendtsen L. Concomitant persistent pain in classical trigeminal neuralgia – evidence for different subtypes. Headache. 2014a;54(7):1173–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Maarbjerg S, Gozalov A, Olesen J, Bendtsen L. Trigeminal neuralgia – a prospective systematic study of clinical characteristics in 158 patients. Headache. 2014b;54(10):1574–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Maarbjerg S, Wolfram F, Gozalov A, Olesen J, Bendtsen L. Association between neurovascular contact and clinical characteristics in classical trigeminal neuralgia: a prospective clinical study using 3.0 Tesla MRI. Cephalalgia. 2015;35(12):1077–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Maarbjerg S, Wolfram F, Heinskou TB, Rochat P, Gozalov A, Brennum J, et al. Persistent idiopathic facial pain – a prospective systematic study of clinical characteristics and neuroanatomical findings at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Cephalalgia. 2017;37(13):1231–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Maarbjerg S, Di Stefano G, Bendtsen L, Cruccu G. Trigeminal neuralgia – diagnosis and treatment. Cephalalgia. 2017;37(7):648–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. MacDonald BK, Cockerell OC, Sander JW, Shorvon SD. The incidence and lifetime prevalence of neurological disorders in a prospective community-based study in the UK. Brain. 2000;123(Pt 4):665–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Macianskyte D, Januzis G, Kubilius R, Adomaitiene V, Sciupokas A. Associations between chronic pain and depressive symptoms in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Medicina (Kaunas). 2011;47(7):386–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Macrae WA. Chronic pain after surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2001;87(1):88–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Maier C, Baron R, Tolle TR, Binder A, Birbaumer N, Birklein F, et al. Quantitative sensory testing in the German research network on neuropathic pain (DFNS): somatosensory abnormalities in 1236 patients with different neuropathic pain syndromes. Pain. 2010;150(3):439–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Maina G, Vitalucci A, Gandolfo S, Bogetto F. Comparative efficacy of SSRIs and amisulpride in burning mouth syndrome: a single-blind study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(1):38–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Maina G, Albert U, Gandolfo S, Vitalucci A, Bogetto F. Personality disorders in patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Personal Disord. 2005;19(1):84–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Maniam R, Kaye AD, Vadivelu N, Urman RD. Facial pain update: advances in neurostimulation for the treatment of facial pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2016;20(4):24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Marbach JJ, Hulbrock J, Hohn C, Segal AG. Incidence of phantom tooth pain: an atypical facial neuralgia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1982;53(2):190–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Marinus J, Moseley GL, Birklein F, Baron R, Maihofner C, Kingery WS, et al. Clinical features and pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(7):637–48.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Martinez-Gonzalez JM, Martinez-Rodriguez N, Calvo-Guirado JL, Brinkmann JC, Dorado CB. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia: a presentation of 14 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69(6):e38–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Mason JO 3rd, Katz B, Greene HH. Severe ocular pain secondary to occipital neuralgia following vitrectomy surgery. Retina. 2004;24(3):458–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Matharu M, May A. Functional and structural neuroimaging in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2008;12(2):132–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Matsushima T, Huynh-Le P, Miyazono M. Trigeminal neuralgia caused by venous compression. Neurosurgery. 2004;55(2):334–7; discussion 8-9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Mc ET, Horton BT. Atypical face pain; a statistical consideration of 66 cases. Ann Intern Med. 1947;27(5):749–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. McDermott AM, Toelle TR, Rowbotham DJ, Schaefer CP, Dukes EM. The burden of neuropathic pain: results from a cross-sectional survey. Eur J Pain. 2006;10(2):127–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. McGreevy K, Bottros MM, Raja SN. Preventing chronic pain following acute pain: risk factors, preventive strategies, and their efficacy. Eur J Pain Suppl. 2011;5(2):365–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. McLaughlin MR, Jannetta PJ, Clyde BL, Subach BR, Comey CH, Resnick DK. Microvascular decompression of cranial nerves: lessons learned after 4400 operations. J Neurosurg. 1999;90(1):1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. McQuay HJ, Tramer M, Nye BA, Carroll D, Wiffen PJ, Moore RA. A systematic review of antidepressants in neuropathic pain. Pain. 1996;68(2–3):217–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Melis M, Zawawi K, al-Badawi E, Lobo Lobo S, Mehta N. Complex regional pain syndrome in the head and neck: a review of the literature. J Orofac Pain. 2002;16(2):93–104.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  290. Melis M, Lobo SL, Ceneviz C, Zawawi K, Al-Badawi E, Maloney G, et al. Atypical odontalgia: a review of the literature. Headache. 2003;43(10):1060–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  291. Merrill RL. Intraoral neuropathy. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2004;8(5):341–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  292. Meyer-Rosberg K, Kvarnstrom A, Kinnman E, Gordh T, Nordfors LO, Kristofferson A. Peripheral neuropathic pain – a multidimensional burden for patients. Eur J Pain. 2001;5(4):379–89.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  293. Miller JP, Acar F, Hamilton BE, Burchiel KJ. Radiographic evaluation of trigeminal neurovascular compression in patients with and without trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2009;110(4):627–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Minagar A, Sheremata WA. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia and MS. Neurology. 2000;54(6):1368–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Moazzam AA, Habibian M. Patients appearing to dental professionals with orofacial pain arising from intracranial tumors: a literature review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114(6):749–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  296. Mogil JS. Pain genetics: past, present and future. Trends Genet. 2012;28(6):258–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Montano N, Papacci F, Cioni B, Di Bonaventura R, Meglio M. The role of percutaneous balloon compression in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia recurring after other surgical procedures. Acta Neurol Belg. 2013;114(1):59–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Moon S, Lee SJ, Kim E, Lee CY. Hypoesthesia after IAN block anesthesia with lidocaine: management of mild to moderate nerve injury. Restor Dent Endod. 2012;37(4):232–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Moore RA, Derry S, Aldington D, Cole P, Wiffen PJ. Amitriptyline for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD008242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Morrow MJ. Bell’s palsy and Herpes zoster oticus. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2000;2(5):407–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Motta MV, Chaves-Mendonca MA, Stirton CG, Cardozo HF. Accidental injection with sodium hypochlorite: report of a case. Int Endod J. 2009;42(2):175–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Mueller D, Obermann M, Yoon MS, Poitz F, Hansen N, Slomke MA, et al. Prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia and persistent idiopathic facial pain: a population-based study. Cephalalgia. 2011;31(15):1542–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Nagashima W, Kimura H, Ito M, Tokura T, Arao M, Aleksic B, et al. Effectiveness of duloxetine for the treatment of chronic nonorganic orofacial pain. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2012;35(6):273–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Nanjappa M, Kumaraswamy SV, Keerthi R, Ashwin DP, Gopinath AL, Reyazulla MA, et al. Percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy in treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: a prospective study. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2013;12(1):35–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Nasri-Heir C, Gomes J, Heir GM, Ananthan S, Benoliel R, Teich S, et al. The role of sensory input of the chorda tympani nerve and the number of fungiform papillae in burning mouth syndrome. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, Endod. 2011;112(1):65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Nasri-Heir C, Khan J, Benoliel R, Feng C, Yarnitsky D, Kuo F, et al. Altered pain modulation in patients with persistent postendodontic pain. Pain. 2015;156(10):2032–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). The clinical efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery (gamma knife) in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia [Internet]. 2004 [cited September 2006]. Available from:
  308. Netto FO, Diniz IM, Grossmann SM, de Abreu MH, do Carmo MA, Aguiar MC. Risk factors in burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study based on patient records. Clin Oral Investig. 2011;15(4):571–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Nguyen CT, Wang MB. Complementary and integrative treatments: atypical facial pain. Otolaryngol Clin N Am. 2013;46(3):367–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Ni Riordain R, Moloney E, O’Sullivan K, McCreary C. Burning mouth syndrome and oral health-related quality of life: is there a change over time? Oral Dis. 2010;16(7):643–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Nicholson BD. Evaluation and treatment of central pain syndromes. Neurology. 2004;62(5 Suppl 2):S30–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Nitzan-Luques A, Devor M, Tal M. Genotype-selective phenotypic switch in primary afferent neurons contributes to neuropathic pain. Pain. 2011;152(10):2413–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Nixdorf DR, Moana-Filho EJ, Law AS, McGuire LA, Hodges JS, John MT. Frequency of persistent tooth pain after root canal therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Endod. 2010;36(2):224–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Nixdorf DR, Drangsholt MT, Ettlin DA, Gaul C, De Leeuw R, Svensson P, et al. Classifying orofacial pains: a new proposal of taxonomy based on ontology. J Oral Rehabil. 2012;39(3):161–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Nobrega JC, Siqueira SR, Siqueira JT, Teixeira MJ. Diferential diagnosis in atypical facial pain: a clinical study. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65(2A):256–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Nomura T, Ikezaki K, Matsushima T, Fukui M. Trigeminal neuralgia: differentiation between intracranial mass lesions and ordinary vascular compression as causative lesions. Neurosurg Rev. 1994;17(1):51–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Nurmikko TJ, Eldridge PR. Trigeminal neuralgia –pathophysiology, diagnosis and current treatment. Br J Anaesth. 2001;87(1):117–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Nurmikko TJ, Haanpaa M. Treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2005;9(3):161–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. O’Donnell MJ, Diener HC, Sacco RL, Panju AA, Vinisko R, Yusuf S, et al. Chronic pain syndromes after ischemic stroke: PRoFESS trial. Stroke. 2013;44(5):1238–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Oaklander AL. Mechanisms of pain and itch caused by herpes zoster (shingles). J Pain. 2008;9(1 Suppl 1):S10–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Oaklander AL, Bowsher D, Galer B, Haanpaa M, Jensen MP. Herpes zoster itch: preliminary epidemiologic data. J Pain. 2003;4(6):338–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Obermann M, Yoon MS, Ese D, Maschke M, Kaube H, Diener HC, et al. Impaired trigeminal nociceptive processing in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology. 2007;69(9):835–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Obermann M, Yoon MS, Sensen K, Maschke M, Diener HC, Katsarava Z. Efficacy of pregabalin in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Cephalalgia. 2008;28(2):174–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Obermann M, Rodriguez-Raecke R, Naegel S, Holle D, Mueller D, Yoon MS, et al. Gray matter volume reduction reflects chronic pain in trigeminal neuralgia. Neuroimage. 2013;74:352–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Olesen J, Bousser M-G, Diener HC, Dodick D, First M, Goadsby PJ, et al. The international classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition. Cephalalgia. 2004;24(suppl 1):24–150.Google Scholar
  326. Opstelten W, McElhaney J, Weinberger B, Oaklander AL, Johnson RW. The impact of varicella zoster virus: chronic pain. J Clin Virol. 2010;48(Suppl 1):S8–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Osterberg A, Boivie J, Thuomas KA. Central pain in multiple sclerosis – prevalence and clinical characteristics. Eur J Pain. 2005;9(5):531–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Johnson GR, Schmader KE, Straus SE, Gelb LD, et al. A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(22):2271–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Shingles Prevention Study G. Vaccination against herpes zoster and Postherpetic neuralgia. J Infect Dis. 2008;197(Suppl 2):S228–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Ozkan BT, Celik S, Durmus E. Paresthesia of the mental nerve stem from periapical infection of mandibular canine tooth: a case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105(5):e28–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Pagni CA, Fariselli L, Zeme S. Trigeminal neuralgia. Non-invasive techniques versus microvascular decompression. It is really available any further improvement? Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2008;101:27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Pan SL, Yen MF, Chiu YH, Chen LS, Chen HH. Increased risk of trigeminal neuralgia after hypertension: a population-based study. Neurology. 2011;77(17):1605–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Pappagallo M, Oaklander AL, Quatrano-Piacentini AL, Clark MR, Raja SN. Heterogenous patterns of sensory dysfunction in postherpetic neuralgia suggest multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms. Anesthesiology. 2000;92(3):691–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Pareja JA, Cuadrado ML. SUNCT syndrome: an update. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005;6(4):591–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Parmar M, Sharma N, Modgill V, Naidu P. Comparative evaluation of surgical procedures for trigeminal neuralgia. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2013;12(4):400–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Patel A, Kassam A, Horowitz M, Chang YF. Microvascular decompression in the management of glossopharyngeal neuralgia: analysis of 217 cases. Neurosurgery. 2002;50(4):705–10; discussion 10-1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Peker S, Dincer A, Necmettin Pamir M. Vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve is a frequent finding in asymptomatic individuals: 3-T MR imaging of 200 trigeminal nerves using 3D CISS sequences. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151(9):1081–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Penarrocha MA, Penarrocha D, Bagan JV, Penarrocha M. Post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy. A study of 63 cases. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2012;17(2):e297–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Peppin JF, Pappagallo M. Capsaicinoids in the treatment of neuropathic pain: a review. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2014;7(1):22–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Peppin JF, Albrecht PJ, Argoff C, Gustorff B, Pappagallo M, Rice FL, et al. Skin matters: a review of topical treatments for chronic pain. Part two: treatments and applications. Pain Ther. 2015;4(1):33–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Perez C, Navarro A, Saldana MT, Martinez S, Rejas J. Patient-reported outcomes in subjects with painful trigeminal neuralgia receiving pregabalin: evidence from medical practice in primary care settings. Cephalalgia. 2009;29(7):781–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Peters G, Nurmikko TJ. Peripheral and gasserian ganglion-level procedures for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Clin J Pain. 2002;18(1):28–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Petersen KL, Rice FL, Farhadi M, Reda H, Rowbotham MC. Natural history of cutaneous innervation following herpes zoster. Pain. 2010;150(1):75–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Petruzzi M, Lauritano D, De Benedittis M, Baldoni M, Serpico R. Systemic capsaicin for burning mouth syndrome: short-term results of a pilot study. J Oral Pathol Med. 2004;33(2):111–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Pfaffenrath V, Rath M, Pollmann W, Keeser W. Atypical facial pain – application of the IHS criteria in a clinical sample. Cephalalgia. 1993;13(Suppl 12):84–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Pigg M, Svensson P, Drangsholt M, List T. Seven-year follow-up of patients diagnosed with atypical odontalgia: a prospective study. J Orofac Pain. 2013;27(2):151–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Pinto A, Sollecito TP, DeRossi SS. Burning mouth syndrome. A retrospective analysis of clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. N Y State Dent J. 2003;69(3):18–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Pogrel MA. The results of microneurosurgery of the inferior alveolar and lingual nerve. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;60(5):485–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Pogrel MA. Permanent nerve damage from inferior alveolar nerve blocks – an update to include articaine. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2007;35(4):271–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Pogrel MA, Jergensen R, Burgon E, Hulme D. Long-term outcome of trigeminal nerve injuries related to dental treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69(9):2284–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Polgar E, Hughes DI, Arham AZ, Todd AJ. Loss of neurons from laminas I-III of the spinal dorsal horn is not required for development of tactile allodynia in the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. J Neurosci. 2005;25(28):6658–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Pollock BE, Boes CJ. Stereotactic radiosurgery for glossopharyngeal neuralgia: preliminary report of 5 cases. J Neurosurg. 2011;115(5):936–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Pollock BE, Ecker RD. A prospective cost-effectiveness study of trigeminal neuralgia surgery. Clin J Pain. 2005;21(4):317–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Polycarpou N, Ng YL, Canavan D, Moles DR, Gulabivala K. Prevalence of persistent pain after endodontic treatment and factors affecting its occurrence in cases with complete radiographic healing. Int Endod J. 2005;38(3):169–78.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  355. Povlishock JT, Katz DI. Update of neuropathology and neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2005;20(1):76–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Pradel W, Hlawitschka M, Eckelt U, Herzog R, Koch K. Cryosurgical treatment of genuine trigeminal neuralgia. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;40(3):244–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Puca A, Meglio M, Vari R, Tamburrini G, Tancredi A. Evaluation of fifth nerve dysfunction in 136 patients with middle and posterior cranial fossae tumors. Eur Neurol. 1995;35(1):33–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Pulec JL. Geniculate neuralgia: long-term results of surgical treatment. Ear Nose Throat J. 2002;81(1):30–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Puri V, Cui L, Liverman CS, Roby KF, Klein RM, Welch KM, et al. Ovarian steroids regulate neuropeptides in the trigeminal ganglion. Neuropeptides. 2005;39(4):409–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Queral-Godoy E, Figueiredo R, Valmaseda-Castellon E, Berini-Aytes L, Gay-Escoda C. Frequency and evolution of lingual nerve lesions following lower third molar extraction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64(3):402–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Rappaport ZH. Neurosurgical aspects of orofacial pain. In: Sharav Y, Benoliel R, editors. Orofacial pain and headache. 2nd ed. Quintessence Publishing; 2015.Google Scholar
  362. Rahimpour S, Lad SP. Surgical options for atypical facial pain syndromes. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2016;27(3):365–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Rasmussen PV, Sindrup SH, Jensen TS, Bach FW. Symptoms and signs in patients with suspected neuropathic pain. Pain. 2004;110(1–2):461–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Reda H, Greene K, Rice FL, Rowbotham MC, Petersen KL. Natural history of herpes zoster: late follow-up of 3.9 years (n=43) and 7.7 years (n=10). Pain. 2013;154(10):2227–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Reddy VK, Parker SL, Patrawala SA, Lockney DT, Su PF, Mericle RA. Microvascular decompression for classic trigeminal neuralgia: determination of minimum clinically important difference in pain improvement for patient reported outcomes. Neurosurgery. 2013;72(5):749–54; discussion 54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Reddy VK, Parker SL, Lockney DT, Patrawala SA, Su PF, Mericle RA. Percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency lesioning for trigeminal neuralgia: determination of minimum clinically important difference in pain improvement for patient reported outcomes. Neurosurgery. 2014;74(3):262–6; discussion 6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Renton T, Yilmaz Z. Profiling of patients presenting with posttraumatic neuropathy of the trigeminal nerve. J Orofac Pain. 2011;25(4):333–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  368. Renton T, Yilmaz Z. Managing iatrogenic trigeminal nerve injury: a case series and review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;41(5):629–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Renton T, Thexton A, Hankins M, McGurk M. Quantitative thermosensory testing of the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves in health and after iatrogenic injury. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;41(1):36–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Renton T, Adey-Viscuso D, Meechan JG, Yilmaz Z. Trigeminal nerve injuries in relation to the local anaesthesia in mandibular injections. Br Dent J. 2010;209(9):E15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Renton T, Yilmaz Z, Gaballah K. Evaluation of trigeminal nerve injuries in relation to third molar surgery in a prospective patient cohort. Recommendations for prevention. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012a;41(12):1509–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Renton T, Dawood A, Shah A, Searson L, Yilmaz Z. Post-implant neuropathy of the trigeminal nerve. A case series. Br Dent J. 2012b;212(11):E17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Rey-Dios R, Cohen-Gadol AA. Current neurosurgical management of glossopharyngeal neuralgia and technical nuances for microvascular decompression surgery. Neurosurg Focus. 2013;34(3):E8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Rhodus NL, Carlson CR, Miller CS. Burning mouth (syndrome) disorder. Quintessence Int. 2003a;34(8):587–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. Rhodus NL, Fricton J, Carlson P, Messner R. Oral symptoms associated with fibromyalgia syndrome. J Rheumatol. 2003b;30(8):1841–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Robert RC, Bacchetti P, Pogrel MA. Frequency of trigeminal nerve injuries following third molar removal. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63(6):732–5; discussion 6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Rodriguez-de Rivera-Campillo E, Lopez-Lopez J. Evaluation of the response to treatment and clinical evolution in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013;18(3):e403–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Rowbotham MC, Goli V, Kunz NR, Lei D. Venlafaxine extended release in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pain. 2004;110(3):697–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Rozen TD. Trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Neurol Clin. 2004;22(1):185–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Rutner TW, Ziccardi VB, Janal MN. Long-term outcome assessment for lingual nerve microsurgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63(8):1145–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Saarto T, Wiffen PJ. Antidepressants for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;3:CD005454.Google Scholar
  382. Saers SJ, Han KS, de Ru JA. Microvascular decompression may be an effective treatment for nervus intermedius neuralgia. J Laryngol Otol. 2011;125(5):520–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Sahai-Srivastava S, Zheng L. Occipital neuralgia with and without migraine: difference in pain characteristics and risk factors. Headache. 2011;51(1):124–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Salter MW. Deepening understanding of the neural substrates of chronic pain. Brain. 2014;137(Pt 3):651–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Salter MW, Beggs S. Sublime microglia: expanding roles for the guardians of the CNS. Cell. 2014;158(1):15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Sambrook PJ, Goss AN. Severe adverse reactions to dental local anaesthetics: prolonged mandibular and lingual nerve anaesthesia. Aust Dent J. 2011;56(2):154–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Sampson JH, Grossi PM, Asaoka K, Fukushima T. Microvascular decompression for glossopharyngeal neuralgia: long-term effectiveness and complication avoidance. Neurosurgery. 2004;54(4):884–9; discussion 9-90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Sanchez-Mejia RO, Limbo M, Cheng JS, Camara J, Ward MM, Barbaro NM. Recurrent or refractory trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression, radiofrequency ablation, or radiosurgery. Neurosurg Focus. 2005;18(5):e12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Sardella A, Lodi G, Demarosi F, Bez C, Cassano S, Carrassi A. Burning mouth syndrome: a retrospective study investigating spontaneous remission and response to treatments. Oral Dis. 2006;12(2):152–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Sato J, Saitoh T, Notani K, Fukuda H, Kaneyama K, Segami N. Diagnostic significance of carbamazepine and trigger zones in trigeminal neuralgia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;97(1):18–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Sauerbrei A. Diagnosis, antiviral therapy, and prophylaxis of varicella-zoster virus infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;35(5):723–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Sayanlar J, Guleyupoglu N, Portenoy R, Ashina S. Trigeminal postherpetic neuralgia responsive to treatment with capsaicin 8% topical patch: a case report. J Headache Pain. 2012;13(7):587–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Scala A, Checchi L, Montevecchi M, Marini I, Giamberardino MA. Update on burning mouth syndrome: overview and patient management. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2003;14(4):275–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Schmader K. Herpes zoster in older adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(10):1481–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Schmader KE, Levin MJ, Gnann JW Jr, McNeil SA, Vesikari T, Betts RF, et al. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of herpes zoster vaccine in persons aged 50-59 years. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54(7):922–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. Schmidt R, Schmelz M, Forster C, Ringkamp M, Torebjork E, Handwerker H. Novel classes of responsive and unresponsive C nociceptors in human skin. J Neurosci. 1995;15(1 Pt 1):333–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Shim HJ, Jung H, Park DC, Lee JH, Yeo SG. Ramsay Hunt syndrome with multicranial nerve involvement. Acta Otolaryngol. 2011;131(2):210–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Silvestre-Rangil J, Silvestre FJ, Tamarit-Santafe C, Bautista D. Burning mouth syndrome: correlation of treatment to clinical variables of the disease. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2011;16(7):e890–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. Simms HN, Honey CR. The importance of autonomic symptoms in trigeminal neuralgia. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011;115(2):210–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. Simpson DA. Gabapentin and venlafaxine for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. J Clin Neuromusc Dis. 2001;3:53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Sinay VJ, Bonamico LH, Dubrovsky A. Subclinical sensory abnormalities in trigeminal neuralgia. Cephalalgia. 2003;23(7):541–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. Sindou M, Howeidy T, Acevedo G. Anatomical observations during microvascular decompression for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (with correlations between topography of pain and site of the neurovascular conflict). Prospective study in a series of 579 patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2002;144(1):1–12; discussion -3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Sindrup SH, Jensen TS. Antidepressants in the treatment of neuropathic pain. In: Hanson PT, Fields HL, Hill RG, Marchettini P, editors. Neuropathic pain: pathophysiology and treatment, vol. 21. Seattle: IASP Press; 2001. p. 169–83.Google Scholar
  404. Sindrup SH, Jensen TS. Pharmacotherapy of trigeminal neuralgia. Clin J Pain. 2002;18(1):22–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Singh PK. Root canal complications: ‘the hypochlorite accident’. SADJ. 2010;65(9):416–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. Singh PM, Dehran M, Mohan VK, Trikha A, Kaur M. Analgesic efficacy and safety of medical therapy alone vs combined medical therapy and extraoral glossopharyngeal nerve block in glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Pain Med. 2013;14(1):93–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Siqueira SR, Siviero M, Alvarez FK, Teixeira MJ, Siqueira JT. Quantitative sensory testing in trigeminal traumatic neuropathic pain and persistent idiopathic facial pain. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2013;71(3):174–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Sjaastad O, Bakketeig LS. Neck-tongue syndrome and related (?) conditions. Cephalalgia. 2006;26(3):233–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. Smith JH, Cutrer FM. Numbness matters: a clinical review of trigeminal neuropathy. Cephalalgia. 2011;31(10):1131–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. Smith MH, Lung KE. Nerve injuries after dental injection: a review of the literature. J Can Dent Assoc. 2006;72(6):559–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. Smith JG, Elias LA, Yilmaz Z, Barker S, Shah K, Shah S, et al. The psychosocial and affective burden of posttraumatic neuropathy following injuries to the trigeminal nerve. J Orofac Pain. 2013a;27(4):293–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. Smith JH, Bottemiller KL, Flemming KD, Michael Cutrer F, Strand EA. Inability to self-report pain after a stroke: a population-based study. Pain. 2013b;154(8):1281–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. Solaro C, Messmer Uccelli M, Uccelli A, Leandri M, Mancardi GL. Low-dose gabapentin combined with either lamotrigine or carbamazepine can be useful therapies for trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis. Eur Neurol. 2000;44(1):45–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. Stieber VW, Bourland JD, Ellis TL. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia treated with gamma knife surgery: treatment outcome and failure analysis. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2005;102(Suppl):155–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. Strauss ER, Ziccardi VB, Janal MN. Outcome assessment of inferior alveolar nerve microsurgery: a retrospective review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64(12):1767–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. Susarla SM, Kaban LB, Donoff RB, Dodson TB. Functional sensory recovery after trigeminal nerve repair. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007a;65(1):60–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. Susarla SM, Kaban LB, Donoff RB, Dodson TB. Does early repair of lingual nerve injuries improve functional sensory recovery? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007b;65(6):1070–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. Svensson P, Baad-Hansen L, Pigg M, List T, Eliav E, Ettlin D, et al. Guidelines and recommendations for assessment of somatosensory function in oro-facial pain conditions – a taskforce report. J Oral Rehabil. 2011;38(5):366–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. Tacconi L, Miles JB. Bilateral trigeminal neuralgia: a therapeutic dilemma. Br J Neurosurg. 2000;14(1):33–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. Taha JM, Tew JM, Jr. Comparison of surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia: reevaluation of radiofrequency rhizotomy. Neurosurgery. 1996;38(5):865–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. Taiminen T, Kuusalo L, Lehtinen L, Forssell H, Hagelberg N, Tenovuo O, et al. Psychiatric (axis I) and personality (axis II) disorders in patients with burning mouth syndrome or atypical facial pain. Scand J Pain. 2011;2(4):155–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. Tal M, Villanueva L, Devor M. Anatomy and neurophysiology of orofacial pain. In: Sharav Y, Benoliel R, editors. Orofacial pain & headache. 2nd ed. Chicago: Quintessence Int. 2015.Google Scholar
  423. Tan AM, Chang YW, Zhao P, Hains BC, Waxman SG. Rac1-regulated dendritic spine remodeling contributes to neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Exp Neurol. 2011;232(2):222–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. Tatli M, Satici O, Kanpolat Y, Sindou M. Various surgical modalities for trigeminal neuralgia: literature study of respective long-term outcomes. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2008;150(3):243–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. Teixeira MJ, de Siqueira SR, Bor-Seng-Shu E. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia: neurosurgical treatment and differential diagnosis. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2008;150(5):471-475; discussion 5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Tesfaye S, Wilhelm S, Lledo A, Schacht A, Tolle T, Bouhassira D, et al. Duloxetine and pregabalin: high-dose monotherapy or their combination? The “COMBO-DN study” – a multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain. 2013;154(12):2616–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Treede RD, Jensen TS, Campbell JN, Cruccu G, Dostrovsky JO, Griffin JW, et al. Neuropathic pain: redefinition and a grading system for clinical and research purposes. Neurology. 2008;70(18):1630–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. Truini A, Galeotti F, Haanpaa M, Zucchi R, Albanesi A, Biasiotta A, et al. Pathophysiology of pain in postherpetic neuralgia: a clinical and neurophysiological study. Pain. 2008;140(3):405–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. Tubbs RS, Steck DT, Mortazavi MM, Cohen-Gadol AA. The nervus intermedius: a review of its anatomy, function, pathology, and role in neurosurgery. World Neurosurg. 2013;79(5–6):763–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. Tuleasca C, Carron R, Resseguier N, Donnet A, Roussel P, Gaudart J, et al. Patterns of pain-free response in 497 cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia treated with gamma knife surgery and followed up for least 1 year. J Neurosurg. 2012;117(Suppl):181–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. Turner-Stokes L, Goebel A, Guideline Development G. Complex regional pain syndrome in adults: concise guidance. Clin Med. 2011;11(6):596–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. Tyler-Kabara EC, Kassam AB, Horowitz MH, Urgo L, Hadjipanayis C, Levy EI, et al. Predictors of outcome in surgically managed patients with typical and atypical trigeminal neuralgia: comparison of results following microvascular decompression. J Neurosurg. 2002;96(3):527–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Umino M, Kohase H, Ideguchi S, Sakurai N. Long-term pain control in trigeminal neuralgia with local anesthetics using an indwelling catheter in the mandibular nerve. Clin J Pain. 2002;18(3):196–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. Vallejo R, Tilley DM, Vogel L, Benyamin R. The role of glia and the immune system in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Pain Pract. 2010;10(3):167–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. Valmaseda-Castellon E, Berini-Aytes L, Gay-Escoda C. Lingual nerve damage after third lower molar surgical extraction. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000;90(5):567–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. Valmaseda-Castellon E, Berini-Aytes L, Gay-Escoda C. Inferior alveolar nerve damage after lower third molar surgical extraction: a prospective study of 1117 surgical extractions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001;92(4):377–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. van Hecke O, Austin SK, Khan RA, Smith BH, Torrance N. Neuropathic pain in the general population: a systematic review of epidemiological studies. Pain. 2014;155(4):654–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. Vanelderen P, Lataster A, Levy R, Mekhail N, van Kleef M, Van Zundert J. 8. Occipital neuralgia. Pain Pract. 2010;10(2):137–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. Vestergaard K, Andersen G, Gottrup H, Kristensen BT, Jensen TS. Lamotrigine for central poststroke pain: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2001;56(2):184–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. Vickers ER, Cousins MJ. Neuropathic orofacial pain part 1 – prevalence and pathophysiology. Aust Endod J. 2000;26(1):19–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. Vitkov L, Weitgasser R, Hannig M, Fuchs K, Krautgartner WD. Candida-induced stomatopyrosis and its relation to diabetes mellitus. J Oral Pathol Med. 2003;32(1):46–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. Volcy M, Rapoport AM, Tepper SJ, Sheftell FD, Bigal ME. Persistent idiopathic facial pain responsive to topiramate. Cephalalgia. 2006;26(4):489–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Volpi A, Gross G, Hercogova J, Johnson RW. Current management of herpes zoster: the European view. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005;6(5):317–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. von Hehn CA, Baron R, Woolf CJ. Deconstructing the neuropathic pain phenotype to reveal neural mechanisms. Neuron. 2012;73(4):638–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. von Ohle C, ElAyouti A. Neurosensory impairment of the mental nerve as a sequel of periapical periodontitis: case report and review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110(4):e84–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. Vora AR, Loescher AR, Boissonade FM, Robinson PP. Ultrastructural characteristics of axons in traumatic neuromas of the human lingual nerve. J Orofac Pain. 2005;19(1):22–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  447. Wang QP, Bai M. Topiramate versus carbamazepine for the treatment of classical trigeminal neuralgia: a meta-analysis. CNS Drugs. 2011;25(10):847–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. Wang DD, Ouyang D, Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Molinaro AM, Ward M, et al. Trends in surgical treatment for trigeminal neuralgia in the United States of America from 1988 to 2008. J Clin Neurosci. 2013;20(11):1538–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. Watson CP, Oaklander AL. Postherpetic neuralgia. Pain Pract. 2002;2(4):295–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  450. Webb CJ, Makura ZG, McCormick MS. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia following foreign body impaction in the neck. J Laryngol Otol. 2000;114(1):70–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. Weissman-Fogel I, Granovsky Y, Crispel Y, Ben-Nun A, Best LA, Yarnitsky D, et al. Enhanced presurgical pain temporal summation response predicts post-thoracotomy pain intensity during the acute postoperative phase. J Pain. 2009;10(6):628–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. Wetering EJ, Lemmens KM, Nieboer AP, Huijsman R. Cognitive and behavioral interventions for the management of chronic neuropathic pain in adults – a systematic review. Eur J Pain. 2010;14(7):670–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. Whitley RJ, Volpi A, McKendrick M, Wijck A, Oaklander AL. Management of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia now and in the future. J Clin Virol. 2010;48(Suppl 1):S20–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Wiffen P, Collins S, McQuay H, Carroll D, Jadad A, Moore A. Anticonvulsant drugs for acute and chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005a;3:CD001133.Google Scholar
  455. Wiffen PJ, McQuay HJ, Moore RA. Carbamazepine for acute and chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005b;3:CD005451.Google Scholar
  456. Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Moore RA. Lamotrigine for chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013a;12:CD006044.Google Scholar
  457. Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Moore RA, Aldington D, Cole P, Rice AS, et al. Antiepileptic drugs for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia – an overview of Cochrane reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013b;11:CD010567.Google Scholar
  458. Wig S, Romanowski C, Akil M. An unusual cause of the neck-tongue syndrome. J Rheumatol. 2009;36(4):857–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. Wilsey B, Marcotte T, Deutsch R, Gouaux B, Sakai S, Donaghe H. Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain. J Pain. 2013;14(2):136–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  460. Witton R, Henthorn K, Ethunandan M, Harmer S, Brennan PA. Neurological complications following extrusion of sodium hypochlorite solution during root canal treatment. Int Endod J. 2005;38(11):843–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. Wolff RF, Bala MM, Westwood M, Kessels AG, Kleijnen J. 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster vs other relevant interventions and placebo for post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN): a systematic review. Acta Neurol Scand. 2011;123(5):295–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. Won AS, Collins TA. Non-immersive, virtual reality mirror visual feedback for treatment of persistent idiopathic facial pain. Pain Med. 2012;13(9):1257–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. Wood MJ. How should we measure pain in herpes zoster? Neurology. 1995;45(12 Suppl 8):S61–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. Woolf CJ, Salter MW. Neuronal plasticity: increasing the gain in pain. Science. 2000;288(5472):1765–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. Wu CL, Raja SN. An update on the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. J Pain. 2008;9(1 Suppl 1):S19–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. Wu CL, Raja SN. Treatment of acute postoperative pain. Lancet. 2011;377(9784):2215–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. Xiong NX, Zhao HY, Zhang FC, Liu RE. Vagoglossopharyngeal neuralgia treated by microvascular decompression and glossopharyngeal rhizotomy: clinical results of 21 cases. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2012;90(1):45–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  468. Xu-Hui W, Chun Z, Guang-Jian S, Min-Hui X, Guang-Xin C, Yong-Wen Z, et al. Long-term outcomes of percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizotomy in 3370 patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Turk Neurosurg. 2011;21(1):48–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. Yang HW, Huang YF. Treatment of persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) with a low-level energy diode laser. Photomed Laser Surg. 2011;29(10):707–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. Yang J, Simonson TM, Ruprecht A, Meng D, Vincent SD, Yuh WT. Magnetic resonance imaging used to assess patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1996;81(3):343–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. Yarnitsky D, Crispel Y, Eisenberg E, Granovsky Y, Ben-Nun A, Sprecher E, et al. Prediction of chronic post-operative pain: pre-operative DNIC testing identifies patients at risk. Pain. 2008;138(1):22–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  472. Yilmaz Z, Renton T, Yiangou Y, Zakrzewska J, Chessell IP, Bountra C, et al. Burning mouth syndrome as a trigeminal small fibre neuropathy: increased heat and capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in nerve fibres correlates with pain score. J Clin Neurosci. 2007;14(9):864–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. Yoshino N, Akimoto H, Yamada I, Nagaoka T, Tetsumura A, Kurabayashi T, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia: evaluation of neuralgic manifestation and site of neurovascular compression with 3D CISS MR imaging and MR angiography. Radiology. 2003;228(2):539–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  474. Young B, Shivazad A, Kryscio RJ, St Clair W, Bush HM. Long-term outcome of high-dose gamma knife surgery in treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2013;119(5):1166–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  475. Yue WL, Zhang Y. Treatment of glossopharyngeal neuralgia with peripheral glycerol injection:our experience in twenty one older patients. Clin Otolaryngol. 2013;38(6):533–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Zakrzewska JM. Cryotherapy for trigeminal neuralgia: a 10 year audit. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991;29(1):1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. Zakrzewska JM. Consumer views on management of trigeminal neuralgia. Headache. 2001;41(4):369–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. Zakrzewska JM. Chronic/persistent idiopathic facial pain. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2016;27(3):345–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. Zakrzewska JM, Lopez BC. Trigeminal neuralgia. Clin Evid. 2004;12:1880–90.Google Scholar
  480. Zakrzewska JM, Patsalos PN. Long-term cohort study comparing medical (oxcarbazepine) and surgical management of intractable trigeminal neuralgia. Pain. 2002;95(3):259–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. Zakrzewska JM, Lopez BC, Kim SE, Coakham HB. Patient reports of satisfaction after microvascular decompression and partial sensory rhizotomy for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2005a;56(6):1304–11; discussion 11-2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. Zakrzewska JM, Forssell H, Glenny AM. Interventions for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005b;1:CD002779.Google Scholar
  483. Zelenka M, Schafers M, Sommer C. Intraneural injection of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha into rat sciatic nerve at physiological doses induces signs of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2005;116(3):257–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  484. Zeltser R, Beilin B, Zaslansky R, Seltzer Z. Comparison of autotomy behavior induced in rats by various clinically-used neurectomy methods. Pain. 2000;89(1):19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. Zhang H, Lei D, You C, Mao BY, Wu B, Fang Y. The long-term outcome predictors of pure microvascular decompression for primary trigeminal neuralgia. World Neurosurg. 2013;79(5–6):756–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. Zhong J, Li ST, Zhu J, Guan HX, Zhou QM, Jiao W, et al. A clinical analysis on microvascular decompression surgery in a series of 3000 cases. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012;114(7):846–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Ziccardi VB. Microsurgical techniques for repair of the inferior alveolar and lingual nerves. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2011;19(1):79–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. Ziccardi VB, Steinberg MJ. Timing of trigeminal nerve microsurgery: a review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65(7):1341–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. Ziccardi VB, Rivera L, Gomes J. Comparison of lingual and inferior alveolar nerve microsurgery outcomes. Quintessence Int. 2009;40(4):295–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  490. Zvartau-Hind M, Din MU, Gilani A, Lisak RP, Khan OA. Topiramate relieves refractory trigeminal neuralgia in MS patients. Neurology. 2000;55(10):1587–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olga A. Korczeniewska
    • 1
  • Eli Eliav
    • 2
  • Rafael Benoliel
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic Sciences Rutgers School of Dental MedicineRutgers The State University of New JerseyNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, School of Medicine and DentistryUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Department of Diagnostic SciencesRutgers School of Dental Medicine, Rutgers State University of New JerseyNewarkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ramesh Balasubramaniam
    • 1
  1. 1.UWA Dental School, University of Western AustraliaNedlandsAustralia

Personalised recommendations