Classification of Orofacial Pain

  • Gary D. KlasserEmail author
  • Jean-Paul Goulet
  • Antoon De Laat
  • Daniele Manfredini
Reference work entry


Designing a classification system for any disease entity, let alone orofacial pain and more specifically for temporomandibular disorders, is quite the task. Unfortunately, this is made even more difficult due to the many conditions, both physical and psychosocial, that must be accounted for when undertaking this challenge for these aforementioned entities. In order to appreciate the utility of classification systems, it is first necessary to gain an understanding and comprehension as to their importance and how it may be optimally operationalized for both clinical and research activities. Other considerations that must be taken into account are past and present classification systems that have been espoused by various organizations. Each of these needs to be carefully evaluated within a framework of their inherent advantages while exposing their limitations. These previously established classification systems must then be integrated with newly proposed, expanded upon or modified systems as a result of recent findings from contemporary evidence-based scientific literature. Hopefully, this will lead to an “ideal classification system” whereby other factors such as genetics and neurobiological process can be reviewed for inclusion in this expanded schema. Additionally, adopting newer approaches, such as following ontological principles, will result in a more thorough and comprehensive classification system which ultimately will assist the clinician in providing improved diagnosis, the researcher in studying more homogenous groups, and the patient in receiving more directed and individualized interventions.


Orofacial pain Temporomandibular disorders Classification systems Taxonomy Ontology 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary D. Klasser
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jean-Paul Goulet
    • 2
  • Antoon De Laat
    • 3
    • 4
  • Daniele Manfredini
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic Sciences, School of DentistryLouisiana State University Health Sciences CenterNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Faculté de Médecine dentaireUniversité LavalQuébecCanada
  3. 3.Department of Oral Health SciencesK.U. LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  4. 4.Department of DentistryUniversity Hospitals LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  5. 5.School of DentistryUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly

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