Advertisement

Cutaneous Pathology of the Head and Neck

  • Tami Yap
  • Johannes S. Kern
  • Benjamin Wood
  • Laura ScardamagliaEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Cutaneous pathology spans the diverse variable landscape of the head and neck, including the periorbital and periocular regions, scalp, face, and neck. Ranging from solar ultraviolet radiation exposure-related neoplasms to chronic inflammatory-mediated conditions, clinical diagnosis, and management often calls for multidisciplinary care. In appreciation for the expanse of cutaneous conditions that may present in the head and neck, this chapter presents a selection of more commonly presenting cutaneous pathology in this area. Conditions described include skin cancers and premalignant cutaneous conditions, benign tumors, benign pigmented lesions and disorders, infectious conditions, autoimmune disorders, and other common dermatological conditions.

Keywords

Cutaneous Pathology Head Neck Face Squamous cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Melanoma Nevus Skin cancer Pigmentation Cheilitis Dermatitis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the clinical photography team at the Royal Melbourne Hospital.

References

  1. Ackerman AB, Mones JM. Solar (actinic) keratosis is squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol. 2006;155(1):9–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed AR, Colon JE. Comparison between intravenous immunoglobulin and conventional immunosuppressive therapy regimens in patients with severe oral pemphigoid: effects on disease progression in patients nonresponsive to dapsone therapy. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137(9):1181–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed et al. Pemphigus: current concepts. Ann Intern Med. 1980;92(3):396–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed AR, Dahl MV. Consensus statement on the use of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in the treatment of autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering diseases. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139(8):1051–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmed AR, et al. Treatment of pemphigus vulgaris with rituximab and intravenous immune globulin. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(17):1772–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alikhan A, et al. Vitiligo: a comprehensive overview part I. Introduction, epidemiology, quality of life, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, associations, histopathology, etiology, and work-up. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65(3):473–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Johani KA, Fedele S, Porter SR. Erythema multiforme and related disorders. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103(5):642–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Alkhateeb A, et al. Epidemiology of vitiligo and associated autoimmune diseases in Caucasian probands and their families. Pigment Cell Res. 2003;16(3):208–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Amer M, Metwalli M. Topical liquiritin improves melasma. Int J Dermatol. 2000;39(4):299–301.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Arduino PG, Porter SR. Oral and perioral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection: review of its management. Oral Dis. 2006;12(3):254–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Arduino PG, Porter SR. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: overview on relevant clinico-pathological features. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37(2):107–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Arin MJ, et al. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) in the treatment of pemphigus. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153(3):620–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Augustsson A, et al. Prevalence of common and dysplastic naevi in a Swedish population. Br J Dermatol. 1991;124(2):152–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Balch CM, et al. Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(36):6199–206.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baroni A, et al. Vesicular and bullous disorders: pemphigus. Dermatol Clin. 2007;25(4):597–603, ix.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Baum S, et al. Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune blistering diseases. Autoimmun Rev. 2014;13(4–5):482–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Becker BA, Gaspari AA. Pemphigus vulgaris and vegetans. Dermatol Clin. 1993;11(3):429–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Beissert S, et al. A comparison of oral methylprednisolone plus azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil for the treatment of pemphigus. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142(11):1447–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Beissert S, et al. Treating pemphigus vulgaris with prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130(8):2041–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bendewald MJ, et al. Incidence of dermatomyositis and clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Arch Dermatol. 2010;146(1):26–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bergman R. The pathogenesis and clinical significance of xanthelasma palpebrarum. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;30(2 Pt 1):236–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Berth-Jones J. Rosacea, perioral dermatitis and similar dermatoses, flushing and flushing syndromes. In: Rook’s textbook of dermatology: Blackwell Publishing, Inc; Hoboken, New Jersey, USA; 2008. p. 2197–216.Google Scholar
  23. Bertram F, et al. Prospective analysis of the incidence of autoimmune bullous disorders in Lower Franconia, Germany. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2009;7(5):434–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bharucha T, Ming D, Breuer J. A critical appraisal of ‘Shingrix’, a novel herpes zoster subunit (HZ/Su or GSK1437173A) vaccine for varicella zoster virus. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017;14:1–9.Google Scholar
  25. Black M, Mignogna MD, Scully C. Number II. Pemphigus vulgaris. Oral Dis. 2005;11(3):119–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Boissy RE, Visscher M, DeLong MA. DeoxyArbutin: a novel reversible tyrosinase inhibitor with effective in vivo skin lightening potency. Exp Dermatol. 2005;14(8):601–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Borda LJ, Wikramanayake TC. Seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff: a comprehensive review. J Clin Invest Dermatol. 2015;3(2):10.Google Scholar
  28. Brash DE, et al. A role for sunlight in skin cancer: UV-induced p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1991;88(22):10124–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Brenner S, Wohl Y. A survey of sex differences in 249 pemphigus patients and possible explanations. Skinmed. 2007;6(4):163–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Brimhall AK, et al. Safety and efficacy of alefacept, efalizumab, etanercept and infliximab in treating moderate to severe plaque psoriasis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159(2):274–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Bystryn JC. Adjuvant therapy of pemphigus. Arch Dermatol. 1984;120(7):941–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Bystryn JC, Rudolph JL. Pemphigus. Lancet. 2005;366(9479):61–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Bystryn JC, Steinman NM. The adjuvant therapy of pemphigus. An update. Arch Dermatol. 1996;132(2): 203–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Callen JP. Cutaneous manifestations of dermatomyositis and their management. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2010;12(3):192–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Callen JP, Wortmann RL. Dermatomyositis. Clin Dermatol. 2006;24(5):363–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Campisi G, Margiotta V. Oral mucosal lesions and risk habits among men in an Italian study population. J Oral Pathol Med. 2001;30(1):22–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Cavalcante AS, Anbinder AL, Carvalho YR. Actinic cheilitis: clinical and histological features. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66(3):498–503.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Celentano A, Cirillo N. Desmosomes in disease: a guide for clinicians. Oral Dis. 2017;23:157–67.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Celentano A, et al. Oral erythema multiforme: trends and clinical findings of a large retrospective European case series. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2015;120:707.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Chams-Davatchi C, et al. Randomized controlled open-label trial of four treatment regimens for pemphigus vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57(4):622–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Chan LS. Mucous membrane pemphigoid. Clin Dermatol. 2001;19(6):703–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Chan LS, et al. The first international consensus on mucous membrane pemphigoid: definition, diagnostic criteria, pathogenic factors, medical treatment, and prognostic indicators. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138(3):370–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chang MW. Disorders of hyperpigmentation. In: Jorizzo JL, Bolognia JL, Schaffer JV, editors. Dermatology, vol. 1. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2012. p. 1049.Google Scholar
  44. Chang AY, Werth VP. Treatment of cutaneous lupus. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2011;13(4):300–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chen N, et al. Corticosteroids for preventing postherpetic neuralgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;12:Cd005582.Google Scholar
  46. Chen N, et al. Antiviral treatment for preventing postherpetic neuralgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;2:Cd006866.Google Scholar
  47. Clydesdale GJ, Dandie GW, Muller HK. Ultraviolet light induced injury: immunological and inflammatory effects. Immunol Cell Biol. 2001;79(6):547–68.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Cohen RL. Clinical perspectives on premature tooth eruption and cyst formation in neonates. Pediatr Dermatol. 1984;1(4):301–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Corey L, Spear PG. Infections with herpes simplex viruses (1). N Engl J Med. 1986;314(11):686–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Criscione VD, et al. Actinic keratoses: natural history and risk of malignant transformation in the veterans affairs topical Tretinoin chemoprevention trial. Cancer. 2009;115(11):2523–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. da Silva LM, et al. Herpes simplex virus type 1 shedding in the oral cavity of seropositive patients. Oral Dis. 2005;11(1):13–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dalal KM, et al. Patterns of first-recurrence and post-recurrence survival in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma after sentinel lymph node biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14(6):1934–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Daniel BS, Murrell DF. Management of pemphigus. F1000Prime Rep. 2014;6:32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Daniel BS, et al. Evidence-based management of bullous pemphigoid. Dermatol Clin. 2011;29(4):613–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. de Oliveira Ribeiro A, da Silva LC, Martins-Filho PR. Prevalence of and risk factors for actinic cheilitis in Brazilian fishermen and women. Int J Dermatol. 2014;53(11):1370–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. de Souza Lucena EE, et al. Prevalence and factors associated to actinic cheilitis in beach workers. Oral Dis. 2012;18(6):575–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Demirkan S, Gündüz Ö, Sayan CD. Retrospective analysis of endemic Melasma patients. Derm Rep. 2017;9(1):7027.Google Scholar
  58. Drake LA, et al. Guidelines of care for dermatomyositis. American Academy of Dermatology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;34(5 Pt 1):824–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Egan CA, et al. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis responsive to a gluten-free diet. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(6):1927–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Elling SV, Powell FC. Physiological changes in the skin during pregnancy. Clin Dermatol. 1997;15(1):35–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Fabrizi G, et al. Atypical nevi of the scalp in adolescents. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34(5):365–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Faries MB, et al. Late recurrence in melanoma: clinical implications of lost dormancy. J Am Coll Surg. 2013;217(1):27–34; discussion 34–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Faries MB, et al. Multicenter selective lymphadenectomy trial-I confirms the central role of sentinel node biopsy in contemporary melanoma management: response to ‘No survival benefit for patients with melanoma undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy: critical appraisal of the multicenter selective lymphadenectomy trial-I final report’. Br J Dermatol. 2015;172(3):571–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Faries MB, et al. Completion dissection or observation for sentinel-node metastasis in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(23):2211–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fields HL, Rowbotham M, Baron R. Postherpetic neuralgia: irritable nociceptors and deafferentation. Neurobiol Dis. 1998;5(4):209–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Fitzpatrick TB. The validity and practicality of sun-reactive skin types I through VI. Arch Dermatol. 1988;124(6):869–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Fogel AL, Sarin KY, Teng JMC. Genetic diseases associated with an increased risk of skin cancer development in childhood. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2017;29(4):426–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Foster CS, Chang PY, Ahmed AR. Combination of rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulin for recalcitrant ocular cicatricial pemphigoid: a preliminary report. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(5):861–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Friedmann PS, Holden CA. Atopic dermatitis. In: Rook’s textbook of dermatology: Blackwell Publishing, Inc; Hoboken, New Jersey, USA; 2008. p. 755–86.Google Scholar
  70. Frost C, Williams G, Green A. High incidence and regression rates of solar keratoses in a queensland community. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;115(2):273–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Gagliardi AM, et al. Vaccines for preventing herpes zoster in older adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:Cd008858.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Garcia C, Poletti E, Crowson AN. Basosquamous carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60(1):137–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Gilbert SC. Management and prevention of recurrent herpes labialis in immunocompetent patients. Herpes. 2007;14(3):56–61.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Goldberg LH, Joseph AK, Tschen JA. Proliferative actinic keratosis. Int J Dermatol. 1994;33(5):341–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Goodfield MJD, Jones SK, Veale DJ. The ‘connective tissue diseases’. In: Rook’s textbook of dermatology. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010. p. 1–138.Google Scholar
  76. Green AC. Epidemiology of actinic keratoses. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2015;46:1–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Grohs RL, Mesbah Ardakani N. Melanoma manifesting as Tumoral melanosis; Now you see it, now you don’t. Am J Dermatopathol. 2017;Google Scholar
  78. Gronhagen CM, et al. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus and the association with systemic lupus erythematosus: a population-based cohort of 1088 patients in Sweden. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164(6):1335–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Gual A, et al. Mortality of bullous pemphigoid in the first year after diagnosis: a retrospective study in a Spanish medical centre. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2014;28(4):500–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Gungor S, Canat D, Gokdemir G. Erbium: YAG laser ablation versus 70% trichloroacetic acid application in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014;25(4):290–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Gupta AK, Versteeg SG. Topical treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis: a systematic review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2017;18(2):193–213.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Gupta AK, et al. The treatment of melasma: a review of clinical trials. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55(6): 1048–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Gupta AK, et al. Interventions for actinic keratoses. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:Cd004415.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Gurcan HM, Ahmed AR. Efficacy of dapsone in the treatment of pemphigus and pemphigoid: analysis of current data. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2009;10(6):383–96.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Hakozaki T, et al. The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer. Br J Dermatol. 2002;147(1):20–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Harries MJ, Paus R. The pathogenesis of primary cicatricial alopecias. Am J Pathol. 2010;177(5):2152–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Herbst A, Bystryn JC. Patterns of remission in pemphigus vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42(3):422–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Iannella G, et al. Vitiligo: pathogenesis, clinical variants and treatment approaches. Autoimmun Rev. 2016;15(4):335–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jackson JM, et al. Current understanding of seborrheic keratosis: prevalence, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management. J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(10):1119–25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Jadotte YT, Schwartz RA. Solar cheilosis: an ominous precursor: part I. Diagnostic insights. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012a;66(2):173–84. quiz 185–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Jadotte YT, Schwartz RA. Solar cheilosis: an ominous precursor part II. Therapeutic perspectives. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012b;66(2):187–98; quiz 199–200.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Jarukitsopa S, et al. Epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus and cutaneous lupus erythematosus in a predominantly white population in the United States. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2015;67(6):817–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Joffe MM, et al. Drug therapy of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: predictors of response to prednisone, azathioprine, and methotrexate and a comparison of their efficacy. Am J Med. 1993;94(4):379–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Joly P, et al. A single cycle of rituximab for the treatment of severe pemphigus. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(6):545–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Junqueira JL, et al. Actinic cheilitis among agricultural workers in Campinas, Brazil. Community Dent Health. 2011;28(1):60–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Kalra A, et al. Role of herpes simplex and cytomegalo viruses in recalcitrant oral lesions of pemphigus vulgaris. Int J Dermatol. 2005;44(3):259–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Kang HY, et al. The dermal stem cell factor and c-kit are overexpressed in melasma. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154(6):1094–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Kang H, et al. Lichen planopilaris. Dermatol Ther. 2008;21(4):249–56.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Kawai K, Gebremeskel BG, Acosta CJ. Systematic review of incidence and complications of herpes zoster: towards a global perspective. BMJ Open. 2014;4(6):e004833.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kelly JB 3rd, Foley P, Strober BE. Current and future oral systemic therapies for psoriasis. Dermatol Clin. 2015;33(1):91–109.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Kennedy PG, Cohrs RJ. Varicella-zoster virus human ganglionic latency: a current summary. J Neurovirol. 2010;16(6):411–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Kirtschig G, et al. Interventions for mucous membrane pemphigoid and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;1:Cd004056.Google Scholar
  103. Kirtschig G, et al. Interventions for bullous pemphigoid. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;10:Cd002292.Google Scholar
  104. Kneisel A, Hertl M. Autoimmune bullous skin diseases. Part 1: clinical manifestations. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2011;9(10):844–56; quiz 857.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Kole AK, Ghosh A. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus in a tertiary referral center. Indian J Dermatol. 2009;54(2):132–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kourosh AS, Yancey KB. Therapeutic approaches to patients with mucous membrane pemphigoid. Dermatol Clin. 2011;29(4):637–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Kyriakis KP, et al. Epidemiologic aspects of seborrheic keratoses. Int J Dermatol. 2012;51(2):233–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Lazarova Z, et al. IgG autoantibodies in patients with anti-epiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid recognize the G domain of the laminin 5 alpha-subunit. Clin Immunol. 2001;101(1):100–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Le Roux-Villet C, et al. Rituximab for patients with refractory mucous membrane pemphigoid. Arch Dermatol. 2011;147(7):843–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Lee DY, et al. Predictors and survival impact of false-negative sentinel nodes in melanoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23(3):1012–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Leffell DJ. The scientific basis of skin cancer. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42(1 Pt 2):18–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Li YH, et al. Detection of epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus DNA in nongenital seborrhoeic keratosis. Br J Dermatol. 2004;151(5):1060–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lin RL, Szepietowski JC, Schwartz RA. Tinea faciei, an often deceptive facial eruption. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43(6):437–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lipozencic J, Hadzavdic SL. Perioral dermatitis. Clin Dermatol. 2014;32(1):125–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lipozencic J, Ljubojevic S. Perioral dermatitis. Clin Dermatol. 2011;29(2):157–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Loo WJ, Burrows NP. Management of autoimmune skin disorders in the elderly. Drugs Aging. 2004;21(12):767–77.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Madu MF, Wouters MW, van Akkooi AC. Sentinel node biopsy in melanoma: current controversies addressed. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017;43(3):517–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mahajan VK, et al. Twelve-year clinico-therapeutic experience in pemphigus: a retrospective study of 54 cases. Int J Dermatol. 2005;44(10):821–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Marazza G, et al. Incidence of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus in Switzerland: a 2-year prospective study. Br J Dermatol. 2009;161(4):861–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Marie I, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulins for steroid-refractory esophageal involvement related to polymyositis and dermatomyositis: a series of 73 patients. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010;62(12):1748–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Marks R, Rennie G, Selwood TS. Malignant transformation of solar keratoses to squamous cell carcinoma. Lancet. 1988;1(8589):795–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. McCullough MJ, Savage NW. Oral viral infections and the therapeutic use of antiviral agents in dentistry. Aust Dent J. 2005;50(4 Suppl 2):S31–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. McDonald SK, Goh MS, Chong AH. Successful treatment of cyclosporine-induced sebaceous hyperplasia with oral isotretinoin in two renal transplant recipients. Australas J Dermatol. 2011;52(3):227–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. McNamara DR, et al. Incidence of lower-extremity cellulitis: a population-based study in Olmsted county, Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82(7):817–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mella JM, et al. Efficacy and safety of finasteride therapy for androgenetic alopecia: a systematic review. Arch Dermatol. 2010;146(10):1141–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Menta Simonsen Nico M, Rivitti EA, Lourenco SV. Actinic cheilitis: histologic study of the entire vermilion and comparison with previous biopsy. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34(4):309–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Menter A, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Section 3. Guidelines of care for the management and treatment of psoriasis with topical therapies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60(4):643–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Menter A, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: section 5. Guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with phototherapy and photochemotherapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62(1):114–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mignogna MD, et al. Oropharyngeal pemphigus vulgaris and clinical remission: a long-term, longitudinal study. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2010;11(2):137–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Mihai S, Sitaru C. Immunopathology and molecular diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases. J Cell Mol Med. 2007;11(3):462–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Miller CS, Danaher RJ. Asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the oral cavity. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105(1):43–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mimouni D, et al. Treatment of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus with mycophenolate mofetil. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139(6):739–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Mortimer PS, Burnand KG. Diseases of the veins and arteries: leg ulcers. In: Rook’s textbook of dermatology: Blackwell Publishing, Inc; Hoboken, New Jersey, USA; 2008. p. 2441–94.Google Scholar
  134. Morton DL, et al. Final trial report of sentinel-node biopsy versus nodal observation in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(7):599–609.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Murrell DF, et al. Consensus statement on definitions of disease, end points, and therapeutic response for pemphigus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(6):1043–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Nakamura H, et al. Clonal nature of seborrheic keratosis demonstrated by using the polymorphism of the human androgen receptor locus as a marker. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;116(4):506–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Neoh C, et al. Comparison of topical and oral acyclovir in early herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Eye (Lond). 1994;8(Pt 6):688–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Norris D, et al. Biologics and dermatology life quality index (DLQI) in the Australasian psoriasis population. J Dermatolog Treat. 2017:1–6.Google Scholar
  139. Oddis CV, et al. Rituximab in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65(2):314–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Olsen EA, et al. A randomized clinical trial of 5% topical minoxidil versus 2% topical minoxidil and placebo in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;47(3):377–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Olsen EA, et al. Summary of North American Hair Research Society (NAHRS)-sponsored Workshop on Cicatricial Alopecia, Duke University Medical Center, February 10 and 11, 2001. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48(1):103–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Onoe A, et al. Linear immunoglobulin A/G bullous dermatosis associated with ulcerative colitis. J Dermatol. 2017;44:1295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Oppel T, et al. Pimecrolimus cream (1%) efficacy in perioral dermatitis – results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study in 40 patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21(9):1175–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Ortonne JP, et al. A global survey of the role of ultraviolet radiation and hormonal influences in the development of melasma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;23(11):1254–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Otten JV, et al. Molecular diagnosis in autoimmune skin blistering conditions. Curr Mol Med. 2014;14(1): 69–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Parisi R, et al. Global epidemiology of psoriasis: a systematic review of incidence and prevalence. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133(2):377–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Parker SR, MacKelfresh J. Autoimmune blistering diseases in the elderly. Clin Dermatol. 2011;29(1):69–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Parkin DM, Mesher D, Sasieni P. 13. Cancers attributable to solar (ultraviolet) radiation exposure in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer. 2011;105(S2):S66–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Passeron T. Melasma pathogenesis and influencing factors – an overview of the latest research. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013;27(Suppl 1):5–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Powell J, et al. Mixed immunobullous disease of childhood: a good response to antimicrobials. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144(4):769–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Presto JK, Hejazi EZ, Werth VP. Biological therapies in the treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2016.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0961203316670731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Qasmi S, et al. Impact of oral lesions on diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pemphigus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;23(4):469–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Ragaz A, Ackerman AB. Evolution, maturation, and regression of lesions of psoriasis. New observations and correlation of clinical and histologic findings. Am J Dermatopathol. 1979;1(3):199–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Ragozzino MW, et al. Population-based study of herpes zoster and its sequelae. Medicine (Baltimore). 1982;61(5):310–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rashid KA, Gurcan HM, Ahmed AR. Antigen specificity in subsets of mucous membrane pemphigoid. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126(12):2631–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rashighi M, Harris JE. Vitiligo pathogenesis and emerging treatments. Dermatol Clin. 2017;35(2):257–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Ratushny V, et al. From keratinocyte to cancer: the pathogenesis and modeling of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Invest. 2012;122(2):464–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Requena L, Sangueza OP. Cutaneous vascular anomalies. Part I. Hamartomas, malformations, and dilation of preexisting vessels. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;37(4):523–49; quiz 549–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rodgers M, et al. Etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2011;15(10):i–xxi, 1–329.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rosa G, et al. Langerhans cell collections, but not eosinophils, are clues to a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis in appropriate skin biopsies. J Cutan Pathol. 2016;43(6):498–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Saad AG, Patel S, Mutasim DF. Melanocytic nevi of the auricular region: histologic characteristics and diagnostic difficulties. Am J Dermatopathol. 2005;27(2): 111–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Salasche SJ. Epidemiology of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42(1 Pt 2):4–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sami N, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with ocular-cicatricial pemphigoid: a long-term follow-up. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(7):1380–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Schmidt E, Zillikens D. Pemphigoid diseases. Lancet. 2013;381(9863):320–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. Schmidt E, della Torre R, Borradori L. Clinical features and practical diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid. Dermatol Clin. 2011;29(3):427–38, viii–ix.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Schofield JK, Tatnall FM, Leigh IM. Recurrent erythema multiforme: clinical features and treatment in a large series of patients. Br J Dermatol. 1993;128(5):542–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. Scully C, et al. Pemphigus vulgaris: the manifestations and long-term management of 55 patients with oral lesions. Br J Dermatol. 1999;140(1):84–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. Segal P, et al. The association of dyslipoproteinemia with corneal arcus and xanthelasma. The Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Circulation. 1986;73(1 Pt 2):I108–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Segura S, et al. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulins for the treatment of autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering diseases: evaluation of its use in 19 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56(6):960–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Serpell M, et al. Burden of post-herpetic neuralgia in a sample of UK residents aged 50 years or older: findings from the Zoster Quality of Life (ZQOL) study. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2014;12:92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Shah AY, Doherty SD, Rosen T. Actinic cheilitis: a treatment review. Int J Dermatol. 2010;49(11):1225–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Shain AH, Bastian BC. From melanocytes to melanomas. Nat Rev Cancer. 2016;16(6):345–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Sheth VM, Pandya AG. Melasma: a comprehensive update: part II. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65(4): 699–714; quiz 715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Shimanovich I, Nitz JM, Zillikens D. Multiple and repeated sampling increases the sensitivity of direct immunofluorescence testing for the diagnosis of mucous membrane pemphigoid. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;77(4):700–705.e3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Shipman AR, Reddy H, Wojnarowska F. Association between the subepidermal autoimmune blistering diseases linear IgA disease and the pemphigoid group and inflammatory bowel disease: two case reports and literature review. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2012;37(5):461–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Shirakata Y, et al. Lack of mucosal involvement in pemphigus foliaceus may be due to low expression of desmoglein 1. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110(1):76–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. Shulman JD. Recurrent herpes labialis in US children and youth. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2004;32(6): 402–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. Silapunt S, Chen L, Migden MR. Hedgehog pathway inhibition in advanced basal cell carcinoma: latest evidence and clinical usefulness. Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2016;8(5):375–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Simmons BJ, Griffith RD, Falto-Aizpurua LA. Light and laser therapies for the treatment of sebaceous gland hyperplasia a review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015;29(11):2080–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. Simpson NB, Cunliffe WJ. Disorders of the sebaceous glands. In: Rook’s textbook of dermatology: Blackwell Publishing, Inc; 2008. p. 2121–96.Google Scholar
  181. Sladden M, et al. No survival benefit for patients with melanoma undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy: critical appraisal of the multicenter selective lymphadenectomy trial-I final report. Br J Dermatol. 2015;172(3):566–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. Smoller BR. Squamous cell carcinoma: from precursor lesions to high-risk variants. Mod Pathol. 2006;19(S2):S88–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. Spruance SL, et al. The natural history of recurrent herpes simplex labialis: implications for antiviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 1977;297(2):69–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Squillace L, et al. Unusual Dermoscopic patterns of seborrheic keratosis. Dermatology. 2016;232(2):198–202.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. Stock C, et al. Risk factors of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) infection and lifestyle factors associated with HSV-1 manifestations. Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17(9):885–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. Svendsen MT, et al. Worldwide utilization of topical remedies in treatment of psoriasis: a systematic review. J Dermatolog Treat. 2017;28(5):374–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. Taylor SC, et al. Acne vulgaris in skin of color. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46(2 Suppl Understanding):S98–106.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. Taylor S, et al. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. J Cutan Med Surg. 2009;13(4):183–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  189. Templeton SF, Santa Cruz DJ, Solomon AR. Alopecia: histologic diagnosis by transverse sections. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1996;13(1):2–18.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. Thorne JE, Anhalt GJ, Jabs DA. Mucous membrane pemphigoid and pseudopemphigoid. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(1):45–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. Torres SM, Hughes CR, Berwick M. Melanoma and skin aging. In: Farage MA, Miller KW, Maibach HI, editors. Textbook of aging skin. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer; 2017. p. 903–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Tymms KE, Webb J. Dermatopolymyositis and other connective tissue diseases: a review of 105 cases. J Rheumatol. 1985;12(6):1140–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. Venning VA. Linear IgA disease: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and pathogenesis. Dermatol Clin. 2011;29(3):453–8, ix.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. Wang Z, et al. Identification of saliva using MicroRNA biomarkers for forensic purpose. J Forensic Sci. 2015;60(3):702–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. Watanabe T, Tsuchida T. Classification of lupus erythematosus based upon cutaneous manifestations. Dermatological, systemic and laboratory findings in 191 patients. Dermatology. 1995;190(4):277–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. Weedon DD, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in keratoacanthoma: a neglected phenomenon in the elderly. Am J Dermatopathol. 2010;32(5):423–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. Weissenborn SJ, et al. Human papillomavirus-DNA loads in actinic keratoses exceed those in non-melanoma skin cancers. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125(1):93–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. Werlinger KD, et al. Prevalence of self-diagnosed melasma among premenopausal Latino women in Dallas and fort worth, Tex [2]. Arch Dermatol. 2007;143(3):424–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. Werner RN, et al. European consensus-based (S2k) guideline on the management of Herpes Zoster – guided by the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) in cooperation with the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV), part 2: treatment. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2017;31(1):20–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  200. Whiting DA, Olsen EA. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. Dermatol Ther. 2008;21(4):268–78.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. Wiesner T, et al. Kinase fusions are frequent in Spitz tumours and spitzoid melanomas. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3116.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Winkelmann RR, Kim GK, Del Rosso JQ. Treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus: review and assessment of treatment benefits based on Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Criteria. J Clin Aesthetic Derm. 2013;6(1):27–38.Google Scholar
  203. Woo SB, Challacombe SJ. Management of recurrent oral herpes simplex infections. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103(Suppl): S12.e1–18.Google Scholar
  204. Wood BA. Desmoplastic melanoma: recent advances and persisting challenges. Pathology. 2013;45(5):453–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  205. Wood BA. Paediatric melanoma. Pathology. 2016;48(2): 155–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. Xu HH, et al. Mucous membrane pemphigoid. Dent Clin N Am. 2013;57(4):611–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. Yamada S, et al. Association of linear IgA bullous disease with ulcerative colitis: a case of successful treatment with infliximab. Dermatology. 2013;227(4):295–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  208. Yap KS, et al. Association of low vitamin D with high disease activity in an Australian systemic lupus erythematosus cohort. Lupus Sci Med. 2015;2(1):e000064.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Yeatman JM, Kilkenny M, Marks R. The prevalence of seborrhoeic keratoses in an Australian population: does exposure to sunlight play a part in their frequency? Br J Dermatol. 1997;137(3):411–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tami Yap
    • 1
    • 2
  • Johannes S. Kern
    • 2
  • Benjamin Wood
    • 3
  • Laura Scardamaglia
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Melbourne Dental SchoolUniversity of MelbourneCarltonAustralia
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyRoyal Melbourne HospitalParkvilleAustralia
  3. 3.QEII Medical CentreNedlandsAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Camile S. Farah
    • 1
  1. 1.UWA Dental SchoolUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations