Head and Neck Tumors

  • Moni A. Kuriakose
  • Swagnik Chakrabarti
  • Sok Ching Cheong
  • Luiz P. Kowalski
  • Tiago Novaes Pinheiro
  • Camile S. FarahEmail author
Reference work entry


The head and neck region is a complex part of the human body. The diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the head and neck comprises a wide variety of pathologic entities. These lesions may originate from developmental problems or from benign or malignant neoplastic transformation of normal tissue. Developmental problems arise from disturbances of organogenesis, histogenesis, or functional maturation of the involved structures. Therefore, these lesions can appear at any time during life, usually caused by the interaction of factors such as the environment and genetics.

This chapter highlights and discusses the most significant features for the diagnosis of epithelial and mesenchymal soft tissue tumors of the head and neck region, in addition to tumors of the temporomandibular joint. Tumors are divided into developmental tumors/tumorlike lesions, benign tumors, and malignant tumors and may have non-odontogenic, reactive, or neoplastic etiology.


Head and neck tumors Head and neck malignancies Benign tumors Neck masses Oropharyngeal cancer Nasopharyngeal cancer Hypopharyngeal cancer Laryngeal cancer Human papilloma virus Nasopharyngeal carcinoma Tumors of the nasal cavity Tumors of paranasal sinuses Thyroid cancer Treatment guidelines Tumors of the temporomandibular joint Temporomandibular joint neoplasms 


  1. Abergel A, Cavel O, Margalit N, Fliss DM, Gil Z. Comparison of quality of life after transnasal endoscopic vs open skull base tumor resection. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;138(2):142–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdurehim Y, Hua Z, Yasin Y, Xukurhan A, Imam I, Yuqin F. Transoral laser surgery versus radiotherapy: systematic review and meta-analysis for treatment options of T1a glottic cancer. Head Neck. 2012;34(1):23–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Adegboyega PA, Qiu S. Hemangioma versus vascular malformation: presence of nerve bundle is a diagnostic clue for vascular malformation. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005;129(6):772–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Adelchi C, Mara P, Melissa L, De Stefano A, Cesare M. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the head and neck: a case series. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:790.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adelstein DJ, Ridge JA, Gillison ML, Chaturvedi AK, D’Souza G, Gravitt PE, Westra W, Psyrri A, Kast WM, Koutsky LA, Giuliano A, Krosnick S, Trotti A, Schuller DE, Forastiere A, Ullmann CD. Head and neck squamous cell cancer and the human papillomavirus: summary of a National Cancer Institute State of the Science Meeting, November 9–10, 2008, Washington, D.C. Head Neck. 2009;31(11):1393–422.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Adelstein D, Gillison ML, Pfister DG, Spencer S, Adkins D, Brizel DM, Burtness B, Busse PM, Caudell JJ, Cmelak AJ, Colevas AD, Eisele DW, Fenton M, Foote RL, Gilbert J, Haddad RI, Hicks WL Jr, Hitchcock YJ, Jimeno A, Leizman D, Lydiatt WM, Maghami E, Mell LK, Mittal BB, Pinto HA, Ridge JA, Rocco J, Rodriguez CP, Shah JP, Weber RS, Witek M, Worden F, Yom SS, Zhen W, Burns JL, Darlow SD. NCCN guidelines insights: head and neck cancers, version 2.2017. J Natl Compr Cancer Netw. 2017;15(6):761–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Agaram NP, Chen CL, Zhang L, LaQuaglia MP, Wexler L, Antonescu CR. Recurrent MYOD1 mutations in pediatric and adult sclerosing and spindle cell rhabdomyosarcomas: evidence for a common pathogenesis. Genes Chromosom Cancer. 2014;53(9):779–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Agrawal N, Frederick MJ, Pickering CR, Bettegowda C, Chang K, Li RJ, Fakhry C, Xie TX, Zhang J, Wang J, Zhang N, El-Naggar AK, Jasser SA, Weinstein JN, Trevino L, Drummond JA, Muzny DM, Wu Y, Wood LD, Hruban RH, Westra WH, Koch WM, Califano JA, Gibbs RA, Sidransky D, Vogelstein B, Velculescu VE, Papadopoulos N, Wheeler DA, Kinzler KW, Myers JN. Exome sequencing of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma reveals inactivating mutations in NOTCH1. Science. 2011;333(6046):1154–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Alexandrov LB, Nik-Zainal S, Wedge DC, Aparicio SA, Behjati S, Biankin AV, Bignell GR, Bolli N, Borg A, Borresen-Dale AL, Boyault S, Burkhardt B, Butler AP, Caldas C, Davies HR, Desmedt C, Eils R, Eyfjord JE, Foekens JA, Greaves M, Hosoda F, Hutter B, Ilicic T, Imbeaud S, Imielinski M, Jager N, Jones DT, Jones D, Knappskog S, Kool M, Lakhani SR, Lopez-Otin C, Martin S, Munshi NC, Nakamura H, Northcott PA, Pajic M, Papaemmanuil E, Paradiso A, Pearson JV, Puente XS, Raine K, Ramakrishna M, Richardson AL, Richter J, Rosenstiel P, Schlesner M, Schumacher TN, Span PN, Teague JW, Totoki Y, Tutt AN, Valdes-Mas R, van Buuren MM, Van’t Veer L, Vincent-Salomon A, Waddell N, Yates LR, I. Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome, I. B. C. Consortium, I. M.-S. Consortium, I. PedBrain, Zucman-Rossi J, Futreal PA, McDermott U, Lichter P, Meyerson M, Grimmond SM, Siebert R, Campo E, Shibata T, Pfister SM, Campbell PJ, Stratton MR. Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer. Nature. 2013;500(7463):415–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ali S, Tiwari R, Snow GB, vd Waal I. Incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: report of 1,000 cases. J Laryngol Otol. 1986;100(3):315–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Ambrosch P. The role of laser microsurgery in the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;15(2):82–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ang KK, Harris J, Wheeler R, Weber R, Rosenthal DI, Nguyen-Tan PF, Westra WH, Chung CH, Jordan RC, Lu C, Kim H, Axelrod R, Silverman CC, Redmond KP, Gillison ML. Human papillomavirus and survival of patients with oropharyngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(1):24–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Anghileri M, Miceli R, Fiore M, Mariani L, Ferrari A, Mussi C, Lozza L, Collini P, Olmi P, Casali PG, Pilotti S, Gronchi A. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors: prognostic factors and survival in a series of patients treated at a single institution. Cancer. 2006;107(5):1065–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Andersen A, Berge SR, Engeland A, Norseth T. Exposure to nickel compounds and smoking in relation to incidence of lung and nasal cancer among nickel refinery workers. Occup Environ Med. 1996;53(10):708–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Aoki Y, Tosato G. HIV-1 Tat enhances Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infectivity. Blood. 2004;104(3):810–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baert AL. Encyclopedia of diagnostic imaging. Berlin: Springer Verlag; 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barnes CM, Christison-Lagay EA, Folkman J. The placenta theory and the origin of infantile hemangioma. Lymphat Res Biol. 2007;5(4):245–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barretina J, Caponigro G, Stransky N, Venkatesan K, Margolin AA, Kim S, Wilson CJ, Lehar J, Kryukov GV, Sonkin D, Reddy A, Liu M, Murray L, Berger MF, Monahan JE, Morais P, Meltzer J, Korejwa A, Jane-Valbuena J, Mapa FA, Thibault J, Bric-Furlong E, Raman P, Shipway A, Engels IH, Cheng J, Yu GK, Yu J, Aspesi P Jr, de Silva M, Jagtap K, Jones MD, Wang L, Hatton C, Palescandolo E, Gupta S, Mahan S, Sougnez C, Onofrio RC, Liefeld T, MacConaill L, Winckler W, Reich M, Li N, Mesirov JP, Gabriel SB, Getz G, Ardlie K, Chan V, Myer VE, Weber BL, Porter J, Warmuth M, Finan P, Harris JL, Meyerson M, Golub TR, Morrissey MP, Sellers WR, Schlegel R, Garraway LA. The cancer cell line encyclopedia enables predictive modelling of anticancer drug sensitivity. Nature. 2012;483(7391):603–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Baselga J, Trigo JM, Bourhis J, Tortochaux J, Cortes-Funes H, Hitt R, Gascon P, Amellal N, Harstrick A, Eckardt A. Phase II multicenter study of the antiepidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody cetuximab in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with platinum-refractory metastatic and/or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(24):5568–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Baverstock K, Egloff B, Pinchera A, Ruchti C, Williams D. Thyroid cancer after Chernobyl. Nature. 1992;359(6390):21–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Basu A, Bodycombe NE, Cheah JH, Price EV, Liu K, Schaefer GI, Ebright RY, Stewart ML, Ito D, Wang S, Bracha AL, Liefeld T, Wawer M, Gilbert JC, Wilson AJ, Stransky N, Kryukov GV, Dancik V, Barretina J, Garraway LA, Hon CS, Munoz B, Bittker JA, Stockwell BR, Khabele D, Stern AM, Clemons PA, Shamji AF, Schreiber SL. An interactive resource to identify cancer genetic and lineage dependencies targeted by small molecules. Cell. 2013;154(5):1151–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Baujat B, Bourhis J, Blanchard P, Overgaard J, Ang KK, Saunders M, Le Maitre A, Bernier J, Horiot JC, Maillard E, Pajak TF, Poulsen MG, Bourredjem A, O’Sullivan B, Dobrowsky W, Andrzej H, Skladowski K, Hay JH, Pinto LH, Fu KK, Fallai C, Sylvester R, Pignon JP, M. C. Group. Hyperfractionated or accelerated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010; (12): CD002026.Google Scholar
  23. Becker M. Larynx and hypopharynx. Radiol Clin N Am. 1998;36(5):891–920. viPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Becker M, Zbaren P, Delavelle J, Kurt AM, Egger C, Rufenacht DA, Terrier F. Neoplastic invasion of the laryngeal cartilage: reassessment of criteria for diagnosis at CT. Radiology. 1997;203(2):521–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Benson E, Li R, Eisele D, Fakhry C. The clinical impact of HPV tumor status upon head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Oral Oncol. 2014;50(6):565–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bhattacharyya N. Factors affecting survival in maxillary sinus cancer. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;61(9):1016–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Bondt RB, Nelemans PJ, Hofman PA, Casselman JW, Kremer B, van Engelshoven JM, Beets-Tan RG. Detection of lymph node metastases in head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis comparing US, USgFNAC, CT and MR imaging. Eur J Radiol. 2007;64(2):266–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bonner JA, Harari PM, Giralt J, Azarnia N, Shin DM, Cohen RB, Jones CU, Sur R, Raben D, Jassem J, Ove R, Kies MS, Baselga J, Youssoufian H, Amellal N, Rowinsky EK, Ang KK. Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(6):567–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bradley PF. A review of the use of the neodymium YAG laser in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;35(1):26–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bradley PJ. Primary malignant mucosal melanoma of the head and neck. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;14(2):100–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bremer JW, Neel HB 3rd, DeSanto LW, Jones GC. Angiofibroma: treatment trends in 150 patients during 40 years. Laryngoscope. 1986;96(12):1321–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Brierley JD, Gospodarowicz MK, Wittekind C, editor. TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, 8th Edition. Wiley-Blackwell; 2017Google Scholar
  33. Buckmiller LM, Richter GT, Suen JY. Diagnosis and management of hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck. Oral Dis. 2010;16(5):405–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cabanillas ME, McFadden DG, Durante C. Thyroid cancer. Lancet. 2016;388(10061):2783–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Califano J, Koch W, Sidransky D, Westra WH. Inverted sinonasal papilloma: a molecular genetic appraisal of its putative status as a Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma. Am J Pathol. 2000;156(1):333–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cancer Genome Atlas, N. Comprehensive genomic characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Nature. 2015;517(7536):576–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cancer Genome Atlas Research, N. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers. Nature. 2012;489(7417):519–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Canis M, Ihler F, Martin A, Matthias C, Steiner W. Transoral laser microsurgery for T1a glottic cancer: review of 404 cases. Head Neck. 2015;37(6):889–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. de Carvalho FK, Pinheiro TN, da Silva RA, de Queiroz AM, da Silva LA, Nelson-Filho P. Lymphangioma of the lower lip mimicking a mucocele in children. J Dent Child (Chic). 2015;82(2):116–9.Google Scholar
  40. Castellanos JL, Diaz-Guzman L. Lesions of the oral mucosa: an epidemiological study of 23785 Mexican patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105(1):79–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Castinetti F, Moley J, Mulligan LM, Waguespack SG. A comprehensive review on MEN 2B. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2018;25(2):T29–T39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chan JKC, Bray F, McCarron P, Foo W, Lee AWM, Yip T, Kuo TT, Pilch BZ, Wenig BM, Huang D, Lo KW, Zeng YX, Jia WH. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In: Barnes EL, Eveson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D, editors. Pathology and genetics of head and neck tumours. Lyon: IARC Press; 2005. p. 85–97.Google Scholar
  43. Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Hernandez BY, Xiao W, Kim E, Jiang B, Goodman MT, Sibug-Saber M, Cozen W, Liu L, Lynch CF, Wentzensen N, Jordan RC, Altekruse S, Anderson WF, Rosenberg PS, Gillison ML. Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(32):4294–301.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Chen H. Atlas of genetic diagnosis and counseling. New York: Springer Verlag; 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chen DS, Mellman I. Elements of cancer immunity and the cancer-immune set point. Nature. 2017;541(7637):321–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Chen KH, Chen TD, Chen CW, Lee LY. Iatrogenic Kaposi’s sarcoma in nasal cavity: a case report. World J Surg Oncol. 2014;12:172.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Chen E, Ricciotti R, Futran N, Oda D. Head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma: clinical and pathologic characterization of seven cases. Head Neck Pathol. 2017;11(3):321–326.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cho YA, Yoon HJ, Lee JI, Hong SP, Hong SD. Relationship between the expressions of PD-L1 and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2011;47(12):1148–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Choussy O, Ferron C, Vedrine PO, Toussaint B, Lietin B, Marandas P, Babin E, De Raucourt D, Reyt E, Cosmidis A, Makeiff M, Dehesdin D, G. S. Group. Adenocarcinoma of ethmoid: a GETTEC retrospective multicenter study of 418 cases. Laryngoscope. 2008;118(3):437–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Chow LQ, Haddad R, Gupta S, Mahipal A, Mehra R, Tahara M, Berger R, Eder JP, Burtness B, Lee SH, Keam B, Kang H, Muro K, Weiss J, Geva R, Lin CC, Chung HC, Meister A, Dolled-Filhart M, Pathiraja K, Cheng JD, Seiwert TY. Antitumor activity of pembrolizumab in biomarker-unselected patients with recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: results from the phase Ib KEYNOTE-012 expansion cohort. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(32):3838–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Chung CH, Parker JS, Karaca G, Wu J, Funkhouser WK, Moore D, Butterfoss D, Xiang D, Zanation A, Yin X, Shockley WW, Weissler MC, Dressler LG, Shores CG, Yarbrough WG, Perou CM. Molecular classification of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using patterns of gene expression. Cancer Cell. 2004;5(5):489–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Chung CH, Guthrie VB, Masica DL, Tokheim C, Kang H, Richmon J, Agrawal N, Fakhry C, Quon H, Subramaniam RM, Zuo Z, Seiwert T, Chalmers ZR, Frampton GM, Ali SM, Yelensky R, Stephens PJ, Miller VA, Karchin R, Bishop JA. Genomic alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma determined by cancer gene-targeted sequencing. Ann Oncol. 2015;26(6):1216–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ciriello G, Miller ML, Aksoy BA, Senbabaoglu Y, Schultz N, Sander C. Emerging landscape of oncogenic signatures across human cancers. Nat Genet. 2013;45(10):1127–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cohen LM, Schwartz AM, Rockoff SD. Benign schwannomas: pathologic basis for CT inhomogeneities. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1986;147(1):141–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Colreavy MP, Lacy PD, Hughes J, Bouchier-Hayes D, Brennan P, O’Dwyer AJ, Donnelly MJ, Gaffney R, Maguire A, O’Dwyer TP, Timon CV, Walsh MA. Head and neck schwannomas – a 10 year review. J Laryngol Otol. 2000;114(2):119–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Cove H. Melanosis, melanocytic hyperplasia, and primary malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity. Cancer. 1979;44(4):1424–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Crippa S, Mazzucchelli L, Cibas ES, Ali SZ. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid fine-needle aspiration specimens. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010;134(2):343–4. author reply 345PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. D’Souza G, Kreimer AR, Viscidi R, Pawlita M, Fakhry C, Koch WM, Westra WH, Gillison ML. Case-control study of human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(19):1944–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Das Gupta TK, Brasfield RD, Strong EW, Hajdu SI. Benign solitary Schwannomas (neurilemomas). Cancer. 1969;24(2):355–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Dayyani F, Etzel CJ, Liu M, Ho CH, Lippman SM, Tsao AS. Meta-analysis of the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) on cancer risk and overall survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Head Neck Oncol. 2010;2:15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Department of Veterans Affairs Laryngeal Cancer Study, G, Wolf GT, Fisher SG, Hong WK, Hillman R, Spaulding M, Laramore GE, Endicott JW, McClatchey K, Henderson WG. Induction chemotherapy plus radiation compared with surgery plus radiation in patients with advanced laryngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(24):1685–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Durante C, Montesano T, Torlontano M, Attard M, Monzani F, Tumino S, Costante G, Meringolo D, Bruno R, Trulli F, Massa M, Maniglia A, D’Apollo R, Giacomelli L, Ronga G, Filetti S, P. T. C. S. Group. Papillary thyroid cancer: time course of recurrences during postsurgery surveillance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(2):636–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Eeles RA, Fisher C, A’Hern RP, Robinson M, Rhys-Evans P, Henk JM, Archer D, Harmer CL. Head and neck sarcomas: prognostic factors and implications for treatment. Br J Cancer. 1993;68(1):201–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ellis GL, Auclair PL, Gnepp DR. Surgical pathology of the salivary glands. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1991.Google Scholar
  65. Ettl T, Kleinheinz J, Mehrotra R, Schwarz S, Reichert TE, Driemel O. Infraorbital cutaneous angiosarcoma: a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Head Face Med. 2008;4:18.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Eveson JW, Cawson RA. Tumours of the minor (oropharyngeal) salivary glands: a demographic study of 336 cases. J Oral Pathol. 1985;14(6):500–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Fakhry C, Zhang Q, Nguyen-Tan PF. Human papillomavirus and overall survival after progression of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100(4):261–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Fanburg-Smith JC, Furlong MA, Childers EL. Oral and salivary gland angiosarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Mod Pathol. 2003;16(3):263–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Favus MJ, Schneider AB, Stachura ME, Arnold JE, Ryo UY, Pinsky SM, Colman M, Arnold MJ, Frohman LA. Thyroid cancer occurring as a late consequence of head-and-neck irradiation. Evaluation of 1056 patients. N Engl J Med. 1976;294(19):1019–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Ferreira JC, Oton-Leite AF, Guidi R, Mendonca EF. Granular cell tumor mimicking a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: a case report. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10(1):14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ferris RL, Blumenschein G Jr, Fayette J, Guigay J, Colevas AD, Licitra L, Harrington K, Kasper S, Vokes EE, Even C, Worden F, Saba NF, Iglesias Docampo LC, Haddad R, Rordorf T, Kiyota N, Tahara M, Monga M, Lynch M, Geese WJ, Kopit J, Shaw JW, Gillison ML. Nivolumab for recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(19):1856–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Fitzpatrick SG, Gordon SC. Benign non-neoplastic lesions of the head and neck. In: Radosevich JA, editor. Head & neck cancer: current perspectives, advances, and challenges. Netherlands: Springer; 2013. p. 199–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Finn RS, Crown JP, Lang I, Boer K, Bondarenko IM, Kulyk SO, Ettl J, Patel R, Pinter T, Schmidt M, Shparyk Y, Thummala AR, Voytko NL, Fowst C, Huang X, Kim ST, Randolph S, Slamon DJ. The cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib in combination with letrozole versus letrozole alone as first-line treatment of oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer (PALOMA-1/TRIO-18): a randomised phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(1):25–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Fletcher CD. Solitary circumscribed neuroma of the skin (so-called palisaded, encapsulated neuroma). A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol. 1989;13(7):574–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Forastiere AA, Goepfert H, Maor M, Pajak TF, Weber R, Morrison W, Glisson B, Trotti A, Ridge JA, Chao C, Peters G, Lee DJ, Leaf A, Ensley J, Cooper J. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for organ preservation in advanced laryngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003;349(22):2091–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Forastiere AA, Zhang Q, Weber RS, Maor MH, Goepfert H, Pajak TF, Morrison W, Glisson B, Trotti A, Ridge JA, Thorstad W, Wagner H, Ensley JF, Cooper JS. Long-term results of RTOG 91-11: a comparison of three nonsurgical treatment strategies to preserve the larynx in patients with locally advanced larynx cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(7):845–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Franchi A. Head and neck pathology. M. Volavšek. 2016.
  78. Fregnani ER, Pires FR, Falzoni R, Lopes MA, Vargas PA. Lipomas of the oral cavity: clinical findings, histological classification and proliferative activity of 46 cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;32(1):49–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Fridman WH, Pages F, Sautes-Fridman C, Galon J. The immune contexture in human tumours: impact on clinical outcome. Nat Rev Cancer. 2012;12(4):298–306.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Friedman AB, Munson PD, Richter GT. Vascular anomalies of head and neck. In: Kountakis SE, editor. Encyclopedia of otolaryngology, head and neck surgery. Berlin: Springer; 2013. p. 2975–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gallo RC. The enigmas of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Science. 1998;282(5395):1837–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Gallo WJ, Moss M, Shapiro DN, Gaul JV. Neurilemoma: review of the literature and report of five cases. J Oral Surg. 1977;35(3):235–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Ganly I, Patel SG, Singh B, Kraus DH, Cantu G, Fliss DM, Kowalski LP, Snyderman C, Shah JP. Craniofacial resection for malignant tumors involving the skull base in the elderly: an international collaborative study. Cancer. 2011;117(3):563–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Garden AS, Morrison WH, Wong PF, Tung SS, Rosenthal DI, Dong L, Mason B, Perkins GH, Ang KK. Disease-control rates following intensity-modulated radiation therapy for small primary oropharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;67(2):438–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Garland SM, Smith JS. Human papillomavirus vaccines: current status and future prospects. Drugs. 2010;70(9):1079–98.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Garnett MJ, Edelman EJ, Heidorn SJ, Greenman CD, Dastur A, Lau KW, Greninger P, Thompson IR, Luo X, Soares J, Liu Q, Iorio F, Surdez D, Chen L, Milano RJ, Bignell GR, Tam AT, Davies H, Stevenson JA, Barthorpe S, Lutz SR, Kogera F, Lawrence K, McLaren-Douglas A, Mitropoulos X, Mironenko T, Thi H, Richardson L, Zhou W, Jewitt F, Zhang T, O’Brien P, Boisvert JL, Price S, Hur W, Yang W, Deng X, Butler A, Choi HG, Chang JW, Baselga J, Stamenkovic I, Engelman JA, Sharma SV, Delattre O, Saez-Rodriguez J, Gray NS, Settleman J, Futreal PA, Haber DA, Stratton MR, Ramaswamy S, McDermott U, Benes CH. Systematic identification of genomic markers of drug sensitivity in cancer cells. Nature. 2012;483(7391):570–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gibas Z, Miettinen M. Recurrent parapharyngeal rhabdomyoma. Evidence of neoplastic nature of the tumor from cytogenetic study. Am J Surg Pathol. 1992;16(7):721–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Gildener-Leapman N, Lee J, Ferris RL. Tailored immunotherapy for HPV positive head and neck squamous cell cancer. Oral Oncol. 2014;50(9):780–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Gnepp DR. Diagnostic surgical pathology of the head and neck. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2001.Google Scholar
  90. Golledge J, Fisher C, Rhys-Evans PH. Head and neck liposarcoma. Cancer. 1995;76(6):1051–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Gourin CG, Johnson JT. Incidence of unsuspected metastases in lateral cervical cysts. Laryngoscope. 2000;110(10 Pt 1):1637–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Granata R, Miceli R, Orlandi E, Perrone F, Cortelazzi B, Franceschini M, Locati LD, Bossi P, Bergamini C, Mirabile A, Mariani L, Olmi P, Scaramellini G, Potepan P, Quattrone P, Ang KK, Licitra L. Tumor stage, human papillomavirus and smoking status affect the survival of patients with oropharyngeal cancer: an Italian validation study. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(7):1832–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Grau C, Jakobsen MH, Harbo G, Svane-Knudsen V, Wedervang K, Larsen SK, Rytter C. Sino-nasal cancer in Denmark 1982–1991 – a nationwide survey. Acta Oncol. 2001;40(1):19–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Hamdoon Z, Jerjes W, Al-Delayme R, Hopper C. Solitary giant neurofibroma of the neck subjected to photodynamic therapy: case study. Head Neck Oncol. 2012;4:30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hanna EY. Comprehensive management of skull base tumors. New York: Informa Healthcare; 2009.Google Scholar
  96. Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG. Diagnostic and surgical imaging anatomy: brain, head & neck, spine. Salt Lake City: Amirsys; 2006.Google Scholar
  97. Harnsberger HR, Wiggins RH, Hudgings PA, Michel MA, Swartz J, Davidson CH, Macdonald AJ, Glastonbury CM, Cure JK, Branstetter B. Diagnostic imaging head and neck. Salt Lake City: Amirsys; 2006.Google Scholar
  98. Harrison LB. Head and neck cancer, a multidisciplinary approach. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2014.Google Scholar
  99. Haugen BR, Alexander EK, Bible KC, Doherty GM, Mandel SJ, Nikiforov YE, Pacini F, Randolph GW, Sawka AM, Schlumberger M, Schuff KG, Sherman SI, Sosa JA, Steward DL, Tuttle RM, Wartofsky L. 2015 American Thyroid Association management guidelines for adult patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: the American Thyroid Association guidelines task force on thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2016;26(1):1–133.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Heck JE, Berthiller J, Vaccarella S, Winn DM, Smith EM, Shan’gina O, Schwartz SM, Purdue MP, Pilarska A, Eluf-Neto J, Menezes A, McClean MD, Matos E, Koifman S, Kelsey KT, Herrero R, Hayes RB, Franceschi S, Wunsch-Filho V, Fernandez L, Daudt AW, Curado MP, Chen C, Castellsague X, Ferro G, Brennan P, Boffetta P, Hashibe M. Sexual behaviours and the risk of head and neck cancers: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39(1):166–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Heyer GL, Dowling MM, Licht DJ, Tay SK, Morel K, Garzon MC, Meyers P. The cerebral vasculopathy of PHACES syndrome. Stroke. 2008;39(2):308–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Higgins KM, Shah MD, Ogaick MJ, Enepekides D. Treatment of early-stage glottic cancer: meta-analysis comparison of laser excision versus radiotherapy. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;38(6):603–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Hirsch B, Moskowitz HS. Benign neoplasia-schwannoma-neurofibromatosis type 1, Encyclopedia of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Berlin: Springer; 2013.Google Scholar
  104. Hofbauer GF, Boni R, Simmen D, Mihic D, Nestle FO, Burg G, Dummer R. Histological, immunological and molecular features of a nasal mucosa primary melanoma associated with nasal melanosis. Melanoma Res. 2002;12(1):77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Holmstrom M, Lund VJ. Malignant melanomas of the nasal cavity after occupational exposure to formaldehyde. Br J Ind Med. 1991;48(1):9–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Hong A, Dobbins T, Lee CS, Jones D, Jackson E, Clark J, Armstrong B, Harnett G, Milross C, O’Brien C, Rose B. Relationships between epidermal growth factor receptor expression and human papillomavirus status as markers of prognosis in oropharyngeal cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46(11):2088–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Horbach SE, Lokhorst MM, Saeed P, de Gouyon Matignon de Pontouraude CM, Rothova A, van der Horst CM. Sclerotherapy for low-flow vascular malformations of the head and neck: a systematic review of sclerosing agents. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2016;69(3):295–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hourani R, Taslakian B, Shabb NS, Nassar L, Hourani MH, Moukarbel R, Sabri A, Rizk T. Fibroblastic and myofibroblastic tumors of the head and neck: comprehensive imaging-based review with pathologic correlation. Eur J Radiol. 2015;84(2):250–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Howard DJ, Lund VJ, Wei WI. Craniofacial resection for tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a 25-year experience. Head Neck. 2006;28(10):867–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Miller D, Bishop K, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA. SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2013, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute; 2016.Google Scholar
  111. Hurtuk AM, Marcinow A, Agrawal A, Old M, Teknos TN, Ozer E. Quality-of-life outcomes in transoral robotic surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;146(1):68–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. India Project Team of the International Cancer Genome, C. Mutational landscape of gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma reveals new recurrently-mutated genes and molecular subgroups. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. ISSVA Classification of Vascular Anomalies ©2018 International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies Available at Accessed [11 July 2018]
  114. Itakura E, Yamamoto H, Oda Y, Furue M, Tsuneyoshi M. VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in a series of lymphangiomas: is superficial lymphangioma a true lymphangioma? Virchows Arch. 2009;454(3):317–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Jansen EP, Keus RB, Hilgers FJ, Haas RL, Tan IB, Bartelink H. Does the combination of radiotherapy and debulking surgery favor survival in paranasal sinus carcinoma? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;48(1):27–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Jemal A, Thomas A, Murray T, Thun M. Cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin. 2002;52(1):23–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Karligkiotis A, Bignami M, Terranova P, Gallo S, Meloni F, Padoan G, Lombardi D, Nicolai P, Castelnuovo P. Oncocytic Schneiderian papillomas: clinical behavior and outcomes of the endoscopic endonasal approach in 33 cases. Head Neck. 2014;36(5):624–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Khan MK, Koyfman SA, Hunter GK, Reddy CA, Saxton JP. Definitive radiotherapy for early (T1-T2) glottic squamous cell carcinoma: a 20 year Cleveland Clinic experience. Radiat Oncol. 2012;7:193.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Klintenberg C, Olofsson J, Hellquist H, Sokjer H. Adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinuses. A review of 28 cases with special reference to wood dust exposure. Cancer. 1984;54(3):482–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kluwe L, Mautner V, Heinrich B, Dezube R, Jacoby LB, Friedrich RE, MacCollin M. Molecular study of frequency of mosaicism in neurofibromatosis 2 patients with bilateral vestibular schwannomas. J Med Genet. 2003;40(2):109–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kohsaka S, Shukla N, Ameur N, Ito T, Ng CK, Wang L, Lim D, Marchetti A, Viale A, Pirun M, Socci ND, Qin LX, Sciot R, Bridge J, Singer S, Meyers P, Wexler LH, Barr FG, Dogan S, Fletcher JA, Reis-Filho JS, Ladanyi M. A recurrent neomorphic mutation in MYOD1 defines a clinically aggressive subset of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma associated with PI3K-AKT pathway mutations. Nat Genet. 2014;46(6):595–600.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Koike-Yusa H, Li Y, Tan EP, Velasco-Herrera Mdel C, Yusa K. Genome-wide recessive genetic screening in mammalian cells with a lentiviral CRISPR-guide RNA library. Nat Biotechnol. 2014;32(3):267–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Koujok K, Ruiz RE, Hernandez RJ. Myofibromatosis: imaging characteristics. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35(4):374–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Koutlas IG, Scheithauer BW. Palisaded encapsulated (“solitary circumscribed”) neuroma of the oral cavity: a review of 55 cases. Head Neck Pathol. 2010;4(1):15–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kraus DH, Dubner S, Harrison LB, Strong EW, Hajdu SI, Kher U, Begg C, Brennan MF. Prognostic factors for recurrence and survival in head and neck soft tissue sarcomas. Cancer. 1994;74(2):697–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. La Ferla L, Pinzone MR, Nunnari G, Martellotta F, Lleshi A, Tirelli U, De Paoli P, Berretta M, Cacopardo B. Kaposi’ s sarcoma in HIV-positive patients: the state of art in the HAART-era. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013;17(17):2354–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. La Vecchia C, Ron E, Franceschi S, Dal Maso L, Mark SD, Chatenoud L, Braga C, Preston-Martin S, McTiernan A, Kolonel L, Mabuchi K, Jin F, Wingren G, Galanti MR, Hallquist A, Lund E, Levi F, Linos D, Negri E. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. III. Oral contraceptives, menopausal replacement therapy and other female hormones. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10(2):157–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Landis SH, Murray T, Bolden S, Wingo PA. Cancer statistics, 1999. CA Cancer J Clin. 1999;49(1):8–31. 31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lassen P, Eriksen JG, Krogdahl A, Therkildsen MH, Ulhøi BP, Overgaard M, Specht L, Andersen E, Johansen J, Andersen LJ, Grau C, Overgaard J; Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA). The influence of HPV-associated p16-expression on accelerated fractionated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer: evaluation of the randomised DAHANCA 6&7 trial. Radiother Oncol. 2011;100(1):49–55.Google Scholar
  130. Lawrence MS, Stojanov P, Polak P, Kryukov GV, Cibulskis K, Sivachenko A, Carter SL, Stewart C, Mermel CH, Roberts SA, Kiezun A, Hammerman PS, McKenna A, Drier Y, Zou L, Ramos AH, Pugh TJ, Stransky N, Helman E, Kim J, Sougnez C, Ambrogio L, Nickerson E, Shefler E, Cortes ML, Auclair D, Saksena G, Voet D, Noble M, DiCara D, Lin P, Lichtenstein L, Heiman DI, Fennell T, Imielinski M, Hernandez B, Hodis E, Baca S, Dulak AM, Lohr J, Landau DA, Wu CJ, Melendez-Zajgla J, Hidalgo-Miranda A, Koren A, McCarroll SA, Mora J, Lee RS, Crompton B, Onofrio R, Parkin M, Winckler W, Ardlie K, Gabriel SB, Roberts CW, Biegel JA, Stegmaier K, Bass AJ, Garraway LA, Meyerson M, Golub TR, Gordenin DA, Sunyaev S, Lander ES, Getz G. Mutational heterogeneity in cancer and the search for new cancer-associated genes. Nature. 2013;499(7457):214–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Lawson W, Schlecht NF, Brandwein-Gensler M. The role of the human papillomavirus in the pathogenesis of Schneiderian inverted papillomas: an analytic overview of the evidence. Head Neck Pathol. 2008;2(2):49–59.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Layfield LJ. Fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of head and neck lesions: a review and discussion of problems in differential diagnosis. Diagn Cytopathol. 2007;35(12):798–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Leaute-Labreze C, Dumas de la Roque E, Hubiche T, Boralevi F, Thambo JB, Taieb A. Propranolol for severe hemangiomas of infancy. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(24):2649–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Lee MJ, Chung KH, Park JS, Chung H, Jang HC, Kim JW. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B: early diagnosis by multiple mucosal neuroma and its DNA analysis. Ann Dermatol. 2010a;22(4):452–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lee W, Jiang Z, Liu J, Haverty PM, Guan Y, Stinson J, Yue P, Zhang Y, Pant KP, Bhatt D, Ha C, Johnson S, Kennemer MI, Mohan S, Nazarenko I, Watanabe C, Sparks AB, Shames DS, Gentleman R, de Sauvage FJ, Stern H, Pandita A, Ballinger DG, Drmanac R, Modrusan Z, Seshagiri S, Zhang Z. The mutation spectrum revealed by paired genome sequences from a lung cancer patient. Nature. 2010b;465(7297):473–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Lee EY, Kim JJ, Seok H, Lee JY. Schwannoma of the tongue: a case report with review of literature. Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;39(1):17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lefebvre JL, Chevalier D, Luboinski B, Kirkpatrick A, Collette L, Sahmoud T. Larynx preservation in pyriform sinus cancer: preliminary results of a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial. EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Cooperative Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996;88(13):890–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lefebvre JL, Andry G, Chevalier D, Luboinski B, Collette L, Traissac L, de Raucourt D, Langendijk JA, Head E, Neck Cancer G. Laryngeal preservation with induction chemotherapy for hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: 10-year results of EORTC trial 24891. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(10):2708–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Leung SF, Zee B, Ma BB, Hui EP, Mo F, Lai M, Chan KC, Chan LY, Kwan WH, Lo YM, Chan AT. Plasma Epstein-Barr viral deoxyribonucleic acid quantitation complements tumor-node-metastasis staging prognostication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(34):5414–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Levine PA, Cunningham MJ, Brantley S, Barnes L, Schramm VL Jr. Oncocytic Schneiderian papilloma in a young adult: a rare diagnosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1987;97(1):47–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Lipson EJ, Forde PM, Hammers HJ, Emens LA, Taube JM, Topalian SL. Antagonists of PD-1 and PD-L1 in cancer treatment. Semin Oncol. 2015;42(4):587–600.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Liu HL, Yu SY, Li GK, Wei WI. Extracranial head and neck Schwannomas: a study of the nerve of origin. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;268(9):1343–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Lonneux M, Hamoir M, Reychler H, Maingon P, Duvillard C, Calais G, Bridji B, Digue L, Toubeau M, Gregoire V. Positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose improves staging and patient management in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a multicenter prospective study. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(7):1190–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Lu B, Kumar A, Castellsague X, Giuliano AR. Efficacy and safety of prophylactic vaccines against cervical HPV infection and diseases among women: a systematic review & meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Lu H, Liu S, Yang W, Zhang C. Unexpected extracardiac multifocal adult rhabdomyomas with 10 lesions of the head and neck: epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017.Google Scholar
  146. Luna MA, Pineda-Daboin K. Cysts and unknown primary and secondary tumours of the neck, and neck dissection. In: Cardesa A, Slootweg PJ, editors. Pathology of the head and neck. Berlin: Springer; 2006. p. 262–82.Google Scholar
  147. Lydiatt WM, Patel SG, O’Sullivan B, Brandwein MS, Ridge JA, Migliacci JC, Loomis AM, Shah JP. Head and neck cancers-major changes in the American Joint Committee on cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual. CA Cancer J Clin. 2017;67(2):122–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Lyford-Pike S, Peng S, Young GD, Taube JM, Westra WH, Akpeng B, Bruno TC, Richmon JD, Wang H, Bishop JA, Chen L, Drake CG, Topalian SL, Pardoll DM, Pai SI. Evidence for a role of the PD-1:PD-L1 pathway in immune resistance of HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2013;73(6):1733–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Maitra A, Baskin LB, Lee EL. Malignancies arising in oncocytic schneiderian papillomas: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2001;125(10):1365–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Mamelle G, Pampurik J, Luboinski B, Lancar R, Lusinchi A, Bosq J. Lymph node prognostic factors in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Surg. 1994;168(5):494–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mancuso AA, Mukherji SK, Schmalfuss I, Mendenhall W, Parsons J, Pameijer F, Hermans R, Kubilis P. Preradiotherapy computed tomography as a predictor of local control in supraglottic carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17(2):631–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Mandal R, Chan TA. Personalized oncology meets immunology: the path toward precision immunotherapy. Cancer Discov. 2016;6(7):703–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Mandal R, Senbabaoglu Y, Desrichard A, Havel JJ, Dalin MG, Riaz N, Lee KW, Ganly I, Hakimi AA, Chan TA, Morris LG. The head and neck cancer immune landscape and its immunotherapeutic implications. JCI Insight. 2016;1(17):e89829.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Mannone F, De Giorgi V, Cattaneo A, Massi D, De Magnis A, Carli P. Dermoscopic features of mucosal melanosis. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30(8):1118–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Marks JE, Phillips JL, Menck HR. The National Cancer Data Base report on the relationship of race and national origin to the histology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer. 1998;83(3):582–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Marocchio LS, Oliveira DT, Pereira MC, Soares CT, Fleury RN. Sporadic and multiple neurofibromas in the head and neck region: a retrospective study of 33 years. Clin Oral Investig. 2007;11(2):165–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Marur S, D'Souza G, Westra WH, Forastiere AA. HPV-associated head and neck cancer: a virus-related cancer epidemic. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11(8):781–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Meccariello G, Deganello A, Choussy O, Gallo O, Vitali D, De Raucourt D, Georgalas C. Endoscopic nasal versus open approach for the management of sinonasal adenocarcinoma: a pooled-analysis of 1826 patients. Head Neck. 2016;38(Suppl 1):E2267–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Michel L, Ley J, Wildes TM, Schaffer A, Robinson A, Chun SE, Lee W, Lewis J Jr, Trinkaus K, Adkins D. Phase I trial of palbociclib, a selective cyclin dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor, in combination with cetuximab in patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2016;58:41–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Mindell RS, Calcaterra TC, Ward PH. Leiomyosarcoma of the head and neck: a review of the literature and report of two cases. Laryngoscope. 1975;85(5):904–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Montgomery E, Goldblum JR, Fisher C. Leiomyosarcoma of the head and neck: a clinicopathological study. Histopathology. 2002;40(6):518–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Moore PS, Chang Y. Detection of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in Kaposi’s sarcoma in patients with and those without HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 1995;332(18):1181–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Morrison PJ, Nevin NC. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (mucosal neuroma syndrome, Wagenmann-Froboese syndrome). J Med Genet. 1996;33(9):779–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Morrison WH, Byers RM, Garden AS, Evans HL, Ang KK, Peters LJ. Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the head and neck. A therapeutic dilemma. Cancer. 1995;76(2):319–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Minovi A, Basten O, Hunter B, Draf W, Bockmuhl U. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the head and neck: management of 10 cases and literature review. Head Neck. 2007;29(5):439–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Mukherji SK, Bradford CR. Controversies: is there a role for positron-emission tomographic CT in the initial staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27(2):243–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Munn DH. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, Tregs and cancer. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18(15):2240–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Myers LL, Nussenbaum B, Bradford CR, Teknos TN, Esclamado RM, Wolf GT. Paranasal sinus malignancies: an 18-year single institution experience. Laryngoscope. 2002;112(11):1964–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Nabavizadeh SA, Zimmerman RA, Mattei P, Liu GT. Infantile myofibroma of the carotid space presenting as Horner syndrome. J Neuroophthalmol. 2017;37(4):459–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Nagornaya N, Bhatia RG. Imaging for parapharyngeal space tumors, LIPOMA, Encyclopedia of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Berlin: Springer; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Neel HB 3rd, Whicker JH, Devine KD, Weiland LH. Juvenile angiofibroma. Review of 120 cases. Am J Surg. 1973;126(4):547–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Negri E, Dal Maso L, Ron E, La Vecchia C, Mark SD, Preston-Martin S, McTiernan A, Kolonel L, Yoshimoto Y, Jin F, Wingren G, Rosaria Galanti M, Hardell L, Glattre E, Lund E, Levi F, Linos D, Braga C, Franceschi S. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. II. Menstrual and reproductive factors. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10(2):143–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Nutting CM, Morden JP, Harrington KJ, Urbano TG, Bhide SA, Clark C, Miles EA, Miah AB, Newbold K, Tanay M, Adab F, Jefferies SJ, Scrase C, Yap BK, A’Hern RP, Sydenham MA, Emson M, Hall E, P. t. m. group. Parotid-sparing intensity modulated versus conventional radiotherapy in head and neck cancer (PARSPORT): a phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12(2):127–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. O’Sullivan B, Huang SH, Siu LL, Waldron J, Zhao H, Perez-Ordonez B, Weinreb I, Kim J, Ringash J, Bayley A, Dawson LA, Hope A, Cho J, Irish J, Gilbert R, Gullane P, Hui A, Liu FF, Chen E, Xu W. Deintensification candidate subgroups in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer according to minimal risk of distant metastasis. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(5):543–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Oganesyan G, Saha SK, Guo B, He JQ, Shahangian A, Zarnegar B, Perry A, Cheng G. Critical role of TRAF3 in the Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent antiviral response. Nature. 2006;439(7073):208–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Oguejiofor KK, Hall JS, Mani N, Douglas C, Slevin NJ, Homer J, Hall G, West CM. The prognostic significance of the biomarker p16 in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2013;25(11):630–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Osguthorpe JD. Sinus neoplasia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1994;120(1):19–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Owosho AABCD, Huang SCM, Chen SM, Kashikar SD, Estilo CLD, Wolden SLM, Wexler LHM, Huryn JMD, Antonescu CRM. A clinicopathologic study of head and neck rhabdomyosarcomas showing FOXO1 fusion-positive alveolar and MYOD1-mutant sclerosing are associated with unfavorable outcome. Oral Oncol. 2016;61:89–97.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Pai SI, Zandberg DP, Strome SE. The role of antagonists of the PD-1:PD-L1/PD-L2 axis in head and neck cancer treatment. Oral Oncol. 2016;61:152–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Pleasance ED, Stephens PJ, O’Meara S, McBride DJ, Meynert A, Jones D, Lin ML, Beare D, Lau KW, Greenman C, Varela I, Nik-Zainal S, Davies HR, Ordonez GR, Mudie LJ, Latimer C, Edkins S, Stebbings L, Chen L, Jia M, Leroy C, Marshall J, Menzies A, Butler A, Teague JW, Mangion J, Sun YA, McLaughlin SF, Peckham HE, Tsung EF, Costa GL, Lee CC, Minna JD, Gazdar A, Birney E, Rhodes MD, McKernan KJ, Stratton MR, Futreal PA, Campbell PJ. A small-cell lung cancer genome with complex signatures of tobacco exposure. Nature. 2010;463(7278):184–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. Pavlov KA, Dubova EA, Shchyogolev AI, Mishnyov OD. Expression of growth factors in endotheliocytes in vascular malformations. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;147(3):366–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. Pignon JP, le Maitre A, Maillard E, Bourhis J, M.-N. C. Group. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer (MACH-NC): an update on 93 randomised trials and 17,346 patients. Radiother Oncol. 2009;92(1):4–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. Pisharodi LR. False-negative diagnosis in fine-needle aspirations of squamous-cell carcinoma of head and neck. Diagn Cytopathol. 1997;17(1):70–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Pellitteri PK, Ferlito A, Bradley PJ, Shaha AR, Rinaldo A. Management of sarcomas of the head and neck in adults. Oral Oncol. 2003;39(1):2–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. Pointreau Y, Garaud P, Chapet S, Sire C, Tuchais C, Tortochaux J, Faivre S, Guerrif S, Alfonsi M, Calais G. Randomized trial of induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil with or without docetaxel for larynx preservation. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101(7):498–506.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. Posner MR, Lorch JH, Goloubeva O, Tan M, Schumaker LM, Sarlis NJ, Haddad RI, Cullen KJ. Survival and human papillomavirus in oropharynx cancer in TAX 324: a subset analysis from an international phase III trial. Ann Oncol. 2011;22(5):1071–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Poveda-Roda R, Bagan JV, Sanchis JM, Margaix M. Pseudotumors and tumors of the temporomandibular joint. A review. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013;18(3):e392–402.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Ranee Mehra TYS, Mahipal A, Weiss J, Berger R, Eder JP, Burtness B, Tahara M, Keam B, Le DT, Muro K, Geva R, Chung HC, Lin C-C, Meister A, Hille D, Cheng JD, Chow LQM, Haddad RI, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA; University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, FL; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT; National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba, Japan; Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea, The Republic of; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel; Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, The Republic of; National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ; Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA. Efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab in recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC): pooled analyses after long-term follow-up in KEYNOTE-012. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:6012–2.Google Scholar
  189. Rasmussen SA, Yang Q, Friedman JM. Mortality in neurofibromatosis 1: an analysis using U.S. death certificates. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;68(5):1110–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Reed RJ, Fine RM, Meltzer HD. Palisaded, encapsulated neuromas of the skin. Arch Dermatol. 1972;106(6):865–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. Reiners C, Wegscheider K, Schicha H, Theissen P, Vaupel R, Wrbitzky R, Schumm-Draeger PM. Prevalence of thyroid disorders in the working population of Germany: ultrasonography screening in 96,278 unselected employees. Thyroid. 2004;14(11):926–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. Rees MG, Seashore-Ludlow B, Cheah JH, Adams DJ, Price EV, Gill S, Javaid S, Coletti ME, Jones VL, Bodycombe NE, Soule CK, Alexander B, Li A, Montgomery P, Kotz JD, Hon CS, Munoz B, Liefeld T, Dancik V, Haber DA, Clish CB, Bittker JA, Palmer M, Wagner BK, Clemons PA, Shamji AF, Schreiber SL. Correlating chemical sensitivity and basal gene expression reveals mechanism of action. Nat Chem Biol. 2016;12(2):109–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. Rekhi B, Upadhyay P, Ramteke MP, Dutt A. MYOD1 (L122R) mutations are associated with spindle cell and sclerosing rhabdomyosarcomas with aggressive clinical outcomes. Mod Pathol. 2016;29(12):1532–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Remmelts AJ, Hoebers FJ, Klop WM, Balm AJ, Hamming-Vrieze O, van den Brekel MW. Evaluation of lasersurgery and radiotherapy as treatment modalities in early stage laryngeal carcinoma: tumour outcome and quality of voice. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;270(7):2079–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. Richards ML. Familial syndromes associated with thyroid cancer in the era of personalized medicine. Thyroid. 2010;20(7):707–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. Rischin D, Young RJ, Fisher R, Fox SB, Le QT, Peters LJ, Solomon B, Choi J, O’Sullivan B, Kenny LM, McArthur GA. Prognostic significance of p16INK4A and human papillomavirus in patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated on TROG 02.02 phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(27):4142–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Robin PE, Powell DJ, Stansbie JM. Carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: incidence and presentation of different histological types. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 1979;4(6):431–56.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. Robinson M, Sloan P, Shaw R. Refining the diagnosis of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma using human papillomavirus testing. Oral Oncol. 2010;46(7):492–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. Roush GC. Epidemiology of cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses: current concepts. Head Neck Surg. 1979;2(1):3–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  200. Rumboldt Z. Imaging the neck in children. Pediatr Neuroradiol. 2015.
  201. Sakata K, Hareyama M, Tamakawa M, Oouchi A, Sido M, Nagakura H, Akiba H, Koito K, Himi T, Asakura K. Prognostic factors of nasopharynx tumors investigated by MR imaging and the value of MR imaging in the newly published TNM staging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999;43(2):273–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  202. Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74(12):5463–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Schaer DA, Budhu S, Liu C, Bryson C, Malandro N, Cohen A, Zhong H, Yang X, Houghton AN, Merghoub T, Wolchok JD. GITR pathway activation abrogates tumor immune suppression through loss of regulatory T cell lineage stability. Cancer Immunol Res. 2013;1(5):320–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Scudellari M. HPV: sex, cancer and a virus. Nature. 2013;503(7476):330–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Seashore-Ludlow B, Rees MG, Cheah JH, Cokol M, Price EV, Coletti ME, Jones V, Bodycombe NE, Soule CK, Gould J, Alexander B, Li A, Montgomery P, Wawer MJ, Kuru N, Kotz JD, Hon CS, Munoz B, Liefeld T, Dancik V, Bittker JA, Palmer M, Bradner JE, Shamji AF, Clemons PA, Schreiber SL. Harnessing connectivity in a large-scale small-molecule sensitivity dataset. Cancer Discov. 2015;5(11):1210–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Seiwert TY, Zuo Z, Keck MK, Khattri A, Pedamallu CS, Stricker T, Brown C, Pugh TJ, Stojanov P, Cho J, Lawrence MS, Getz G, Bragelmann J, DeBoer R, Weichselbaum RR, Langerman A, Portugal L, Blair E, Stenson K, Lingen MW, Cohen EE, Vokes EE, White KP, Hammerman PS. Integrative and comparative genomic analysis of HPV-positive and HPV-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21(3):632–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Senbabaoglu Y, Winer AG, Gejman RS, Liu M, Luna A, Ostrovnaya I, Weinhold N, Lee W, Kaffenberger SD, Chen YB, Voss MH, Coleman JA, Russo P, Reuter VE, Chan TA, Cheng EH, Scheinberg DA, Li MO, Hsieh JJ, Sander C, Hakimi A. The landscape of T cell infiltration in human cancer and its association with antigen presenting gene expression. bioRxiv. 2015.
  208. Shalem O, Sanjana NE, Hartenian E, Shi X, Scott DA, Mikkelsen TS, Heckl D, Ebert BL, Root DE, Doench JG, Zhang F. Genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screening in human cells. Science. 2014;343(6166):84–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Steigman SA, Nemes L, Barnewolt CE, Estroff JA, Valim C, Jennings RW, Fauza DO. Differential risk for neonatal surgical airway intervention in prenatally diagnosed neck masses. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44(1):76–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  210. Soares AB, Lins LH, Macedo AP, Pereira-Neto JS, Vargas PA. Fibrosarcoma originating in the mandible. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2006;11(3):E243–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Society, A. C. Cancer facts & figures, 2015. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2015.Google Scholar
  212. Spiro RH, Koss LG, Hajdu SI, Strong EW. Tumors of minor salivary origin. A clinicopathologic study of 492 cases. Cancer. 1973;31(1):117–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Spitz MR. Epidemiology and risk factors for head and neck cancer. Semin Oncol. 1994;21(3):281–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Stampfli MR, Anderson GP. How cigarette smoke skews immune responses to promote infection, lung disease and cancer. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009;9(5):377–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Stransky N, Egloff AM, Tward AD, Kostic AD, Cibulskis K, Sivachenko A, Kryukov GV, Lawrence MS, Sougnez C, McKenna A, Shefler E, Ramos AH, Stojanov P, Carter SL, Voet D, Cortes ML, Auclair D, Berger MF, Saksena G, Guiducci C, Onofrio RC, Parkin M, Romkes M, Weissfeld JL, Seethala RR, Wang L, Rangel-Escareno C, Fernandez-Lopez JC, Hidalgo-Miranda A, Melendez-Zajgla J, Winckler W, Ardlie K, Gabriel SB, Meyerson M, Lander ES, Getz G, Golub TR, Garraway LA, Grandis JR. The mutational landscape of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Science. 2011;333(6046):1157–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Szabo G. The number of melanocytes in human epidermis. Br Med J. 1954;1(4869):1016–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Szuhai K, de Jong D, Leung WY, Fletcher CD, Hogendoorn PC. Transactivating mutation of the MYOD1 gene is a frequent event in adult spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma. J Pathol. 2014;232(3):300–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Teng MW, Galon J, Fridman WH, Smyth MJ. From mice to humans: developments in cancer immunoediting. J Clin Invest. 2015;125(9):3338–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Topalian SL, Drake CG, Pardoll DM. Targeting the PD-1/B7-H1(PD-L1) pathway to activate anti-tumor immunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2012;24(2):207–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Trevino-Gonzalez JL, Santos-Lartigue R, Gonzalez-Andrade B, Villagomez-Ortiz VJ, Villegas M, Venegas-Garcia EM. Angiosarcoma of the nasal cavity: a case report. Cases J. 2009;2(1):104.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. de Trey LA, Schmid S, Huber GF. Multifocal adult rhabdomyoma of the head and neck manifestation in 7 locations and review of the literature. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2013;2013:758416.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  222. Tucker T, Wolkenstein P, Revuz J, Zeller J, Friedman JM. Association between benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in NF1. Neurology. 2005;65(2):205–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. van der Wal JE. Granular cell tumor, dental and oral, Encyclopedia of Pathology. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 202–4.Google Scholar
  224. van der Waal I. Diseases of the oral mucosa and soft tissues: general aspects, Atlas of Oral Diseases. Berlin: Springer; 2016. p. 7–66.Google Scholar
  225. Vermorken JB, Mesia R, Rivera F, Remenar E, Kawecki A, Rottey S, Erfan J, Zabolotnyy D, Kienzer HR, Cupissol D, Peyrade F, Benasso M, Vynnychenko I, De Raucourt D, Bokemeyer C, Schueler A, Amellal N, Hitt R. Platinum-based chemotherapy plus cetuximab in head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(11):1116–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Vikram B, Mishra UB, Strong EW, Manolatos S. Patterns of failure in carcinoma of the nasopharynx: I. Failure at the primary site. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1985;11(8):1455–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Villa A, Nordio F, Strohmenger L, Abati S. Clinical–pathologic agreement for oral lesions in an oral medicine setting. Am J Oral Med. 2016;2(1):1–10.Google Scholar
  228. Wang T, Wei JJ, Sabatini DM, Lander ES. Genetic screens in human cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Science. 2014;343(6166):80–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Ward MJ, Thirdborough SM, Mellows T, Riley C, Harris S, Suchak K, Webb A, Hampton C, Patel NN, Randall CJ, Cox HJ, Jogai S, Primrose J, Piper K, Ottensmeier CH, King EV, Thomas GJ. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes predict for outcome in HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2014;110(2):489–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Waldron CA, El-Mofty SK, Gnepp DR. Tumors of the intraoral minor salivary glands: a demographic and histologic study of 426 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1988;66(3):323–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Weber RS, Benjamin RS, Peters LJ, Ro JY, Achon O, Goepfert H. Soft tissue sarcomas of the head and neck in adolescents and adults. Am J Surg. 1986;152(4):386–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Wenig BM. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Ann Diagn Pathol. 1999;3(6):374–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Westra WH. The changing face of head and neck cancer in the 21st century: the impact of HPV on the epidemiology and pathology of oral cancer. Head Neck Pathol. 2009;3(1):78–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Westra WH, Taube JM, Poeta ML, Begum S, Sidransky D, Koch WM. Inverse relationship between human papillomavirus-16 infection and disruptive p53 gene mutations in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14(2):366–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Wingo PA, Ries LA, Rosenberg HM, Miller DS, Edwards BK. Cancer incidence and mortality, 1973–1995: a report card for the U.S. Cancer. 1998;82(6):1197–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. WHO Classification of Head and Neck Tumours. WHO Classification of Tumours, 4th Edition, Volume 9. Edited by El-Naggar AK, Chan JKC, Grandis JR, Takata T, Slootweg PJ. IARC Publications. 2017.
  237. Wall J, Sylvester K, Albanese C. Lymphatic malformations in children. In: Puri P, editor. Pediatric surgery. Germany: Verlag GmbH Springer; 2016.Google Scholar
  238. Walter V, Yin X, Wilkerson MD, Cabanski CR, Zhao N, Du Y, Ang MK, Hayward MC, Salazar AH, Hoadley KA, Fritchie K, Sailey CJ, Weissler MC, Shockley WW, Zanation AM, Hackman T, Thorne LB, Funkhouser WD, Muldrew KL, Olshan AF, Randell SH, Wright FA, Shores CG, Hayes DN. Molecular subtypes in head and neck cancer exhibit distinct patterns of chromosomal gain and loss of canonical cancer genes. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56823.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Woodruff JM. The pathology and treatment of peripheral nerve tumors and tumor-like conditions. CA Cancer J Clin. 1993;43(5):290–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Yoshitake Y, Fukuma D, Yuno A, Hirayama M, Nakayama H, Tanaka T, Nagata M, Takamune Y, Kawahara K, Nakagawa Y, Yoshida R, Hirosue A, Ogi H, Hiraki A, Jono H, Hamada A, Yoshida K, Nishimura Y, Nakamura Y, Shinohara M. Phase II clinical trial of multiple peptide vaccination for advanced head and neck cancer patients revealed induction of immune responses and improved OS. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21(2):312–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Yu Y, Flint AF, Mulliken JB, Wu JK, Bischoff J. Endothelial progenitor cells in infantile hemangioma. Blood. 2004;103(4):1373–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Zak FG, Lawson W. The presence of melanocytes in the nasal cavity. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1974;83(4):515–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Zandberg DP, Strome SE. The role of the PD-L1:PD-1 pathway in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Oral Oncol. 2014;50(7):627–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Zhang L, Wu HW, Yuan W, Zheng JW. Propranolol therapy for infantile hemangioma: our experience. Drug Des Dev Ther. 2017;11:1401–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Zheng JW, Zhou Q, Yang XJ, Wang YA, Fan XD, Zhou GY, Zhang ZY, Suen JY. Treatment guideline for hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck. Head Neck. 2010;32(8):1088–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Zidar N. Branchial cyst in head and neck pathology. In: Volavšek M, editor. Encyclopedia of pathology. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 43–6.Google Scholar
  247. Zitvogel L, Tesniere A, Kroemer G. Cancer despite immunosurveillance: immunoselection and immunosubversion. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006;6(10):715–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Ziyeh S, Strecker R, Berlis A, Weber J, Klisch J, Mader I. Dynamic 3D MR angiography of intra- and extracranial vascular malformations at 3T: a technical note. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26(3):630–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moni A. Kuriakose
    • 1
  • Swagnik Chakrabarti
    • 2
  • Sok Ching Cheong
    • 3
  • Luiz P. Kowalski
    • 4
  • Tiago Novaes Pinheiro
    • 5
  • Camile S. Farah
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Head and Neck Surgery/Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryRoswell Park Cancer InstituteBuffaloUSA
  2. 2.Head and Neck Oncology ServicesTata Memorial HospitalMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Cancer Research MalaysiaCARIF Oral Cancer Research TeamSubang JayaMalaysia
  4. 4.Head and Neck Surgery and Otorhinolaryngology DepartmentA.C. Camargo Cancer CenterSão PauloBrazil
  5. 5.Anatomic Pathology ServiceAmazonas State UniversityManausBrazil
  6. 6.UWA Dental School and Oral Health Centre of Western AustraliaFaculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Camile S. Farah
    • 1
  1. 1.UWA Dental SchoolUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations