Normal Variation in the Anatomy, Biology, and Histology of the Maxillofacial Region

  • Rita HardimanEmail author
  • Omar Kujan
  • Nabil Kochaji
Reference work entry


This chapter discusses the normal anatomy of the maxillofacial region and variations thereof when present and clinically relevant. Single or rare cases of an anatomical variation are excluded, as are very minor variations, such as deviations in the course of a nerve in the range of millimeters. Gross anatomy and histology of the most relevant structures in the maxillofacial region are described by anatomical region.


Anatomy Histology Osteology Variation Oral Mucosa Aging 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Melbourne Dental SchoolThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.UWA Dental SchoolUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  3. 3.Faculty of Dentistry, Damascus UniversityDamascusSyrian Arab Republic

Section editors and affiliations

  • Michael J. McCullough
    • 1
  1. 1.Oral Anatomy, Medicine, and Surgery Section, Melbourne Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry & Health SciencesThe University of MelbourneCarltonAustralia

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