Soft and Hard Tissue Operative Investigations in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Oral Disease

  • Marieke T. BrandsEmail author
  • Ivan Alajbeg
  • Peter A. Brennan
  • Camile S. Farah
Reference work entry


Specialists in oral medicine frequently carry out interventional procedures in the oral cavity. These procedures are usually for diagnostic purposes, but in many instances oral medicine specialists also undertake minor oral surgical procedures as definitive treatment for either mucosal, soft tissue, or hard tissue lesions. This chapter provides an overview of the most common diagnostic procedures used in the oral cavity including soft and hard tissue biopsies. Ancillary techniques such as fine needle aspiration biopsy, the use of fluorescence, toluidine blue, cryotherapy, and lasers are also discussed. Biopsy technique, indications, and pitfalls in addition to medicolegal considerations are covered.


Biopsy Incisional Excisional Fine needle aspiration Cytology Malignancy Oral lesions Diagnostic procedures Surgery Laser Cryotherapy Suturing 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marieke T. Brands
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ivan Alajbeg
    • 2
  • Peter A. Brennan
    • 1
  • Camile S. Farah
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryQueen Alexandra HospitalPortsmouthUK
  2. 2.University of Zagreb School of Dental MedicineZagrebCroatia
  3. 3.UWA Dental School and Oral Health Centre of Western AustraliaFaculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Michael J. McCullough
    • 1
  1. 1.Oral Anatomy, Medicine, and Surgery Section, Melbourne, Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry & Health, SciencesThe University of MelbourneCarltonAustralia

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