Oral and Maxillofacial Fungal Infections

  • Maddalena Manfredi
  • Luciano Polonelli
  • Laura Giovati
  • Ali Alnuaimi
  • Michael J. McCulloughEmail author
Reference work entry


Human fungal infections caused by opportunistic fungi generally do not cause lesions in healthy individuals but rather in patients who are immunocompromised in some manner. In the oral and maxillofacial region, these can be principally attributed to oral candidosis as well as other potentially life-threatening opportunistic fungal infections, such as aspergillosis, mucormycosis, blastomycosis, and histoplasmosis. Although they are considered as systemic mycoses, in the orofacial area, they may also be involved with intraoral manifestations. Microscopic examination of cultures from biopsies or swabs is essential to diagnose and differentiate between these pathologies. This chapter outlines the carriage of Candida species, the etiology of diseases caused by Candida, as well as the clinical presentation of diseases caused by fungi in the oral and maxillofacial area. Factors important in the management of patients with these diseases, including diagnostic techniques and specific antifungal treatment, are presented. Finally, the role of Candida in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma is discussed.


Fungal infections Oral candidosis Candida Candidal virulence Aspergillosis Mucormycosis Blastomycosis Histoplasmosis Cryptococcosis Blastomycosis Paracoccidioidomycosis Patient management Oral carcinogenesis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maddalena Manfredi
    • 1
  • Luciano Polonelli
    • 2
  • Laura Giovati
    • 2
  • Ali Alnuaimi
    • 3
  • Michael J. McCullough
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Medicina e ChirurgiaCentro Universitario di Odontoiatria, University of ParmaParmaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly
  3. 3.Oral Anatomy, Medicine, and Surgery Section, Melbourne, Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, SciencesThe University of MelbourneCarltonAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Camile S. Farah
    • 1
  1. 1.UWA Dental SchoolUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

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