Partnerships for the Goals

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Good Governance: Its Role in Building a Sustainable Future

Living reference work entry


Ecosystem and ecosystem services: An ecosystem is a unique signature of complex interconnected ecological processes which are defined by a relationship between living and non-living organisms inhabiting a specific area at a specific given time. Properly functioning ecosystems are beneficial to humans, and these provide ecosystem services from the surrounding environment. The ecosystem services could be exemplified by events of pollination by bees constitute the Agri ecosystem services); the timber and berries (forest ecosystem services); fishes, tortoises, crabs, and algae (aquatic ecosystem services). The collective benefits for humans obtained from the environment are referred to as ecosystem services. These ecosystem services are classified into four broad categories, namely (1) food and water, (2) controlling/regulating the climate, (3) controlling the nutritional and crop pollination, and (4) spiritual and recreational benefits leading to cultural benefits.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyPondicherry UniversityPuducherryIndia
  2. 2.Department of Management StudiesPondicherry UniversityPuducherryIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Elena Shabliy
    • 1
  1. 1.Divinity SchoolHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA