Life on Land

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Invasive Species: Routes of Introduction, Establishment, and Expansion

  • Dragana SkočajićEmail author
  • Marija Nešić
Living reference work entry


There are different definitions of invasive species, but most of them define alien species as invasive according to the degree of naturalization and the rate of spread or the negative impact on habitat and biodiversity. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Council 2000) describes invasive alien species as those that have been established in a natural or seminatural ecosystem or habitat, affecting diversity and causing changes in those habitats. According to EU Regulation 1143/2014 (EU 2014), invasive alien species are those for whom it was recognized that its introduction or spread threatens or negatively affects biodiversity and ecosystem services.

By the same regulation, the term alien species refers to a species, subspecies, or lower taxon, introduced outside its natural range. Furthermore, the introduction is the movement of a species outside its natural range caused by human intervention (EU 2014).


Invasive species, together with other...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Forestry, Department of Landscape Architecture and HorticultureUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Robert Russell Monteith Paterson

There are no affiliations available