In this entry, the Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) is defined as a business community of manufacturing and service businesses seeking enhanced environmental and economic performance through collaboration in managing environmental and resource issues, including for instance energy, water, and materials. An EIP seeks collective benefits that outweigh the sum of individual benefits that each participating organization would realize by optimizing its own performance only. Usually EIP refers to the formation of interfirm industrial symbiosis. Symbiosis includes the idea of biomimicry, a similar means to that which takes place in nature when different species exchange energy, information, or material in a synergistic fashion, benefiting all of those involved. For instance, industrial applications intentionally mimic the material flows of biological ecosystems in an industrial...
- Chertow M (2007) “Uncovering” industrial symbiosis. J Ind Ecol 11(1):20Google Scholar
- Francis C, Erkman S (2001) Environmental management for industrial estates: Information and training resources. United Nations Environment Programme, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, Paris, France, p 140Google Scholar
- Graedel T, Allenby B (1995) Industrial ecology. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
- President’s Council on Sustainable Development (1997) Eco-industrial park workshop proceedings, Cape Charles, Virginia, 17–18 Oct 1996. President’s council on sustainable development, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Starlander JE (2003) Industrial symbiosis: a closer look on organizational factors, a study based on the industrial symbiosis project in Landskrona. Lund University, SwedenGoogle Scholar