Reduced Inequalities

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Urban Metabolism as Driver for Inequalities: Case of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Living reference work entry


Cities are constantly undergoing a transformation, they are growing, old buildings are being replaced by new ones, new districts are being built on the outskirts, supply lines are being extended, and much more. Urban metabolism describes all technical and socioeconomic processes and transformations within a city, beginning with created objects during a growth phase, through energy production and use, up to waste generation, recycling and disposal (Kennedy et al. 2007). The urban metabolism approach is further a model for the description as well as the analysis material and energy flows within city (Pincetl et al. 2012). In a broader sense, the concept of urban metabolism can be compared with a living organism that absorbs substances, converts them, and releases subsidiary products back into the environment (Timmeren 2014). According to nowadays definition, urban metabolism is a “collection of complex socio-technical and socio-ecological processes by which flows of material,...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department for Water, Environment, Civil Engineering and SafetyMagdeburg-Stendal University of Applied SciencesMagdeburgGermany
  2. 2.Institute of the Environmental Science, Engineering & ManagementIndustrial University of Ho Chi Minh CityHo Chi MinhVietnam

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ulla A. Saari

There are no affiliations available