Advertisement

Information and Communication Technology and Educational Policies in the Sub-Saharan African Region

  • Frank Tilya
Reference work entry
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)

Abstract

This chapter refers to policies toward integrating ICT in primary and secondary education from the perspective of Sub-Saharan Africa region. This chapter explores how recent development in ICT policy facilitates the integration of ICT in teaching and learning in primary and secondary education in the region. Varieties of strategies are in progress to ensure the technology is integrated into primary and secondary education. These strategies focus mainly ICT professional development for management and teaching and learning; electronic content resource development and distribution; access to ICT infrastructure; connectivity, community engagement; and research and development, though the emphasis vary from country to country. Moreover, trends show that different countries are at different stages of ICT adoption and use (UNESCO. (2004). Integrating IT into education: A collective case study of six Asian countries. Bangkok: UNESCO). Majority countries are at emerging and applying stages in ICT adoption and use in education, with only Seychelles, Mauritius, and South Africa at infusing stage. The main challenges facing the region include lack of sufficient budget to sustain ICTs in schools, inadequate ICT infrastructure, untrained teachers and technicians on ICT integration, and ineffective coordination of ICT initiatives, which leads to unfriendly curriculum which does not specify where, how, and when to use ICT for educational purpose. However, low cost and proliferation of mobile technologies in the region have enormous potential to improve ICT use in education. In many countries, mobiles are the only channel for effectively distributing reading material, given the high cost of books and their distribution, especially in rural areas. In addition, mobiles offer interactivity, connectivity, and personalized content.

Keywords

ICT in sub-Sahara ICT in basic education ICT policies in sub-Sahara ICT integration in sub-Saharan education Mobile phones in sub-Sahara Innovations in education sub-Sahara 

References

  1. Africa economic outlook. (2016). Sustainable cities and structural transformation. Retrieved from https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/AEO_2016_Report_Full_English.pdf
  2. Africa-America Institute. (2015). The state of education in Africa report 2015. New York: Africa-America Institute.Google Scholar
  3. African Union. (2006). The second decade of education for Africa (2006–2015). Addis Abba: African Union.Google Scholar
  4. Aker, J. C., & Mbiti, I. M. (2010). Mobile phones and economic development in Africa. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3), 207–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albimana, M. M., Abidin, S. Z., & Sulong, Z. (2016). The role of ICT use to economic growth in the sub-Saharan African region (SSA). Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, 7(3), 306–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, J., & Van Weert, T. (Eds.). (2002). Information and communication technology in education. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  7. BBC. (2014, November 18). The future of education in Africa is mobile. BBC News Online. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120823-what-africa-can-learn-from-phones
  8. Chisholm, L., Dhunpath, R., & Paterson, A. (2004, June). The use of ICTs in the curriculum in Botswana, Namibia, and Seychelles. Research report commissioned by Southern African Development Community Education Policy Support Initiative (SADC EPSI). Retrieved from http://www.edsnet.na/Edutech/ICTs%20FINAL%20REPORT.ag.8.6.2004.pdf
  9. de Haan, L. J. (2010). Perspectives on African studies and development in sub-Saharan Africa. Africa Spectrum, 45(1), 95–116.Google Scholar
  10. Department of Education. (2004). White paper on e-education: Transforming learning and teaching through information and communication technologies. Pretoria: Republic of South Africa.Google Scholar
  11. Eastmond, N. (2006). Faculty member reflections: Professional involvement in Mauritius. Educational Technology Research and Development, 54(4), 434–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Etzo, S., & Collender, G. (2010). The mobile phone ‘revolution’ in Africa: Rhetoric or reality? African Affairs, 109(437), 659–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Farrell G., & Shafika I. (2007). Survey of IT and education in Africa: A summary report, based on 53 country surveys. Retrieved from http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.353.html
  14. Fayoyin, A. (2016). Engaging social media for health communication in Africa: Approaches, results, and lessons. Journal of Mass Communication & Journalism, 6(6), 2–7.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2165-7912.1000315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garegea, K. G., & Moalosi, S. S. (2011). Botswana IT policy and curriculum concerns: Does school connectivity guarantee technology integration into mathematics classrooms? In E. Adomi (Ed.), Handbook of research on information communication technology policy: Trends, issues, and advancements (pp. 15–32). Hershey: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Global e-schools and Community Initiative (GESCI). (2011). ITs in education (IT4E): Policies and plans worldwide. Retrieved from http://www.gesci.org/policy.html
  17. Grant, G. (Ed.). (2004). Guidelines for sectoral ICT policy and planning. Ottawa: The Commonwealth Network of IT for Development (COMNET-IT).Google Scholar
  18. Hennessy, S., Harrison, D., & Wamakote, L. (2010a). Teacher factors influencing classroom use of ICT in sub-Saharan Africa. Itupale Online Journal of African Studies, 2, 39–54.Google Scholar
  19. Hennessy, S., Ongako, B., Harrison, D., Ang’ondo, E.K., Namalefe, S., Naseem, A., Wamakote, L. (2010b). Developing the use of information and communication technology to enhance teaching and learning in East African schools: Review of the literature.Google Scholar
  20. Ict op School. (2004). Vier in Balans Plus. The Hague: Stichting ICT of School. Retrieved from http://onderzoek.kennisnet.nl/.Google Scholar
  21. ITU. (2006). World telecommunications development report. ITU.Google Scholar
  22. ITU (2016). World telecommunication development report. ITU.Google Scholar
  23. Kamehameha Schools Research & Evaluation Division (KSRE). (2010). 21st century skills for students and teachers. Retrieved from http://www.ksbe.edu/_assets/spi/pdfs/21_century_skills_full.pdf
  24. LeBel, P. (2000). Economic choices for educational policy in Africa. The Journal of African Finance and Economic Development, 1, 135–164.Google Scholar
  25. Leke, A., Lund, S., Roxburgh, C., van Wamelen, A. (2010). What’s driving Africa’s growth? McKinsey Quarterly (2), 1–10.Google Scholar
  26. Lincoln, D. (2006). Beyond the plantation: Mauritius in the global division of labour. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 44, 59–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mansel, R., & Wehn, R. (Eds.). (1998). Knowledge societies: Information technology for sustainable development. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Mendes, S., Tuijnman, A., & Young, N. (2003). Education and training for IT development in Srilanka and Tanzania. Stockholm: Elanders.Google Scholar
  29. Ministry of Education. (2000). Information technology master plan for education. Seychelles: Victoria.Google Scholar
  30. Moonen, J. (2008). Evolution of IT and related educational policies in international organizations. In J. Voogt & G. Knezek (Eds.), International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Mwangi, M. I. (2014). Access and pedagogical integration of information and communication technology in secondary schools in Nairobi and Kiambu counties: The case of computers for schools Kenya, Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Nairobi: Kenyatta University.Google Scholar
  32. Naidoo, V. (2003). IT in education policy – Reflecting on key issues. Paper presented at the ITs in African Schools Workshop, Gaborone, Botswana.Google Scholar
  33. Oshionebo, E. E., & Ashang, M. U. (2011). Information and communication technologies (ICTs) integration status in secondary schools’ curriculum in Nigeria. A paper presented at the 2nd international conference on the collaboration of education faculties in West Africa (cefwa) at the University of Lagos from 17th – 21st October 2011.Google Scholar
  34. Robertson, J. W. (2003). Stepping out of the box: Rethinking the failure of ICT to transform schools. Journal of Educational Change, 4(4), 323–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rodríguez-Pose, A., & Tijmstra, S. (2005). Local economic development as an alternative approach to economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank.Google Scholar
  36. Sanchez, J., & Salinas, A. (2008). ICT & learning in Chilean schools: Lessons learned. Computers & Education, 51(4), 1621–1633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. SchoolNet South Africa. (2012). Nokia launches free Maths service to grades 10–12. Latest SchoolNet News. Retrieved from http://www.schoolnet.org.za/news/nokia-launches-free-maths-service-to-grades-10-12/
  38. Tearle, P. (2003). IT implementation: What makes the difference? British Journal of Educational Technology, 34(5), 567–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tranparency International. (2016). Corruption perception index 2016. Retrieved from https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2016
  40. UNDP. (2010). E-governance and citizen participation in West Africa: Challenges and opportunities. Dakar: UNDP.Google Scholar
  41. UNESCO. (2004). Integrating IT into education: A collective case study of six Asian countries. Bangkok: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  42. UNESCO. (2015). Information and communication technology (IT) in education in sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative analysis of basic e-readiness in schools. Montreal: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  43. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. (2003). Towards an information society in Africa: The case for national policies. (AISI Briefing Paper No. 1).Google Scholar
  44. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. (2006). African Information Society Initiative (AISI) e-strategies. Retrieved from http://www.uneca.org/aisi/nici/
  45. Valk, J., Rashid, A., & Elder, L. (2010). Using mobile phones to improve educational outcomes: An analysis of evidence from Asia. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 11(1), 117–136.Google Scholar
  46. Walker, D. (1989). Introducing informatics into education at the national level. Higher Education Policy, 2(4), 41–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. World Resource Institute. (2007). The next 4 billion – Ch3: ICT. Washington, DC: World Resource Institute.Google Scholar
  48. Zlotnikova, I. Y., & van der Weide, T. P. (2011). An approach to modelling ICT educational policies in African countries. Int J Educ Dev Using Inf Commun Technol (IJEDICT), 7(3), 50–73.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of DodomaDodomaTanzania

Section editors and affiliations

  • Birgit Eickelmann
    • 1
  1. 1.University of PaderbornPaderbornGermany

Personalised recommendations