Impact of Smart Crop-Livestock Diversification as Climate Change Adaptation Strategies on Farmers’ Living Conditions, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

  • Zakou AmadouEmail author
  • Zakari Saley Bana
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Farming practices are becoming increasingly affected by the changing climate. Many studies have focused on farmers’ adaptation strategies capable of enhancing vulnerable households’ resilience building capacity. However, few studies have focused on how smart crop-livestock diversification as climate adaptation decisions influence farmers’ living conditions. Based on synthesis from previous research and direct interview with farmers, six climate change adaptation options, each varying at five levels, were compiled and included in this study. In this study, the authors use fractional factorial design to construct five versions of the questionnaire with each five questions, and data were collected from 464 farmers randomly assigned to one version. For each question, respondents were asked to make repeated choices about his best adaptation strategies, and this process is consistent with random utility maximization. Mixed logit model was used to model crop-livestock diversification adaptation actions on farmers’ living conditions. Results indicate that cereal crops such as millet (32%), followed by livestock such as cattle and goat (30%), perennial crops such as Adansonia digitata (17%), and tuber and root crops such as cassava (11%), are the most preferred crop-livestock diversification as climate change adaptation strategies. Results also reveal that farmers’ living conditions would be more improved when this combination is implemented in their production systems. The aggregate annual benefit of introducing smart crop-livestock as climate change adaptation was estimated to be 9,722,763.08 FCFA ($19,445.53). These findings may be useful to build resilience capacity and to address future challenges related to climate change, thereby ensuring sustainable development in the study area.


Climate smart agriculture Crop-livestock diversification Adaptation actions Farmers’ living conditions 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Rural Economics and SociologyTahoua UniversityTahouaNiger
  2. 2.Disaster Risks Reduction Program Officer (DRR/O), Catholic Agency For Overseas Development (CAFOD)NiameyNiger

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