The Role of Religion and Spirituality in Mental Health
- 10 Downloads
Although religion and medicine have historically been intertwined, this relationship with specific reference to mental health has long been neglected. Yet, for the majority of the world’s population, religion and spirituality play an important role in their lives. These populations face medical and mental health challenges that require the understanding and attention of health professionals. In this chapter, pursuant to a brief account of the history of the relationship between religion and health science, growing research is shared that demonstrates the influence of religiosity and spiritual perspectives on people’s ability to cope with mental disorders and related challenges. Given the subjects of both religion and spirituality (R/S) and mental health are vast and complex, the focus here is directed toward their relationship with respect to a few selected mental health issues: the spread of depression including rising suicide rates, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, and a few other disorders that have been less discussed, such as normal voice hearing versus auditory hallucinations, and the rising epidemic of loneliness and social isolation. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, new perspectives on substance abuse, and the opioid crisis are also reviewed. Both positive and negative aspects attributed to spirituality and religious beliefs in relation to mental health and well-being are discussed.
- Abdu’l-Baha. Foundations of world unity. Wilmette: Baha’i Publishing Trust; 1945. p. 83–4.Google Scholar
- Angus Reid Institute. A portrait of social isolation and loneliness in Canada today. June 17, 2019. http://angusreid.org/social-isolation-loneliness-canada/. Accessed 1 Sept 2019.
- Bonelli R, Dew RE, Koenig HG, Rosmarin DH, Vasegh S. Religious and spiritual factors in depression: review and integration of the research. Depress Res Treat. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/298056.
- Cacioppo JT, Hawkley LC. People thinking about people: the vicious cycle of being a social outcast in one’s own mind. In: Kipling DW, Forgas JP, von Hippel W, editors. The social outcast: ostracism, social exclusion, rejection and bullying. New York: Psychology Press; 2005.Google Scholar
- Dein S. Religion, spirituality and mental health. Psychiatr Times. 2010;27(1). https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/articles/religion-spirituality-and-mental-health. Accessed 13 Aug 2019.
- Dudek A, Krzystanek M, Krysta K, Gorna A. Evolution of religious topics in schizophrenia in 80 year period. Psychiatr Danub. 2019;31(Suppl 3):542–29.Google Scholar
- Frankl V. The doctor and the soul. New York: Bantam Books; 1969. p. ix.Google Scholar
- Ghadirian AM. Alcohol and drug abuse: a psychosocial and spiritual approach to prevention. Oxford: George Ronald Publisher; 2007.Google Scholar
- Ghadirian AM, Salehian S. Is spirituality effective in addiction recovery and prevention? J Baha’i Stud. 2018;28(4):69–88.Google Scholar
- Gitlin T. Foreword. In: Riesman D, Glazer N, Denney R, editors. The lonely crowd. New Haven: Yale University Press; 2000.Google Scholar
- Jakovljevic M. Resilience, psychiatry and religion. Psychiatr Danub. 2017;29(3):238–44, p. 240.Google Scholar
- Johnson KS, Tulsky JA, Hays JC, Arnold RM, Olsen MK, Lindquist JH, Steinhauser KE. Which domains of spirituality are associated with anxiety and depression in patients with advanced illness. J Gen Intern Med. 2011;26(7):751–8.Google Scholar
- Koenig HG. Medicine, religion and health. Chicago: Templeton Foundation Press; 2008.Google Scholar
- Koenig HG. Religion, spirituality and health: the research and clinical implications. ISRN Psychiatry. 2012. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/278730.
- Kübler-Ross E. Death – final stage of growth. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1975.Google Scholar
- Levin J. Religion and mental health: theory and research. Int J Appl Psychoanal Stud. 2010;7(2):102–15.Google Scholar
- Mitchell S, Roberts G. Psychosis. In: Cook C, Powell A, Sims A, editors. Spirituality and psychiatry. London: Royal College of Psychiatrist; 2009. p. 39.Google Scholar
- Mohr S, Borras L, Nolan J, Gillieron C, Brandt PY, Eytan A, Leclerc C, Perroud N, Whetten K, Pieper C, Koenig HG, Huguelet P. Spirituality and religion in outpatients with schizophrenia: a multi-site comparative study of Switzerland, Canada, and the United States. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2012;44(1):29–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- National Institute of Mental Health. 2019. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/suicide.shtml.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse. Opioid overdose crisis. 2019. https://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/opioids/opioid-overdose-crisis. Accessed 2 Oct 2019.
- Pargament KI, Brant CR. Religion and coping. In: Koenig HG, editor. Handbook of religion and mental health. San Diego: Academic Press; 1998.Google Scholar
- Rosen D. Modern medicine and the healing process. Humane Med. 1989;5:18.Google Scholar
- Thielman SB. Reflection on the role of religion in the history of psychiatry. In: Koenig HG, editor. Handbook of religion and mental health. San Diego: Academic; 1998. p. 4.Google Scholar
- Tigunait PR. The inner quest: yoga’s answer to life’s questions. Honesdale: Himalayan Institute Press; 2002. p. 5.Google Scholar