Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging

Living Edition
| Editors: Danan Gu, Matthew E. Dupre

Social Stress

  • Uyen-Sa D. T. Nguyen
  • Lien Quach
  • Thanh V. TranEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69892-2_513-1
  • 10 Downloads

Synonyms

Definitions

Lazarus (1966) suggested that stress is the outcome of a person’s inability to respond adequately to demands. More specifically, stress occurs when a person does not have adequate resources to respond to overwhelming demands (Lazarus and Folkman 1984; Palmer 1989). Stress is also defined as the emotional, psychological, and/or physiological response to a challenge, whether real or perceived (McEwen 2000; Pryce and Fuchs 2017; Selye 1955). We can define social stress as a person’s inability to respond adequately to overwhelming social demands or social stressors. Social stress in the aging population, therefore, may be defined in part as a response in older adults to an external challenge or stimuli (i.e., stressors) of social nature that may jeopardize their sense of self or sense of social standing or belonging in a relationship, within a group, or within the larger community (Juth and...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Almeida DM, Wethington E, Kessler RC (2002) The daily inventory of stressful events: an interview-based approach for measuring daily stressors. Assessment 9(1):41–55.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191102091006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aneshensel CS (1992) Social stress: theory and research. Ann Rev Sociol 18:15–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aneshensel CS, Rutter CM, Lachenbruch PA (1991) Social structure, stress, and mental health: competing conceptual and analytic models. Am Sociol Assoc 56(2):166–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aneshensel CS, Pearlin LI, Schuler RH (1993) Stress, role captivity, and the cessation of caregiving. J Health Soc Behav 34(1):54–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonucci TC (1990) Social supports and social relationships. In: Binstock R, George L (eds) Handbook of aging and the social sciences. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Antonucci TC (2001) Social relations – an examination of social networks, social support, and sense of control. In: Birren JE, Schaie KW (eds) Handbook of the psychology of aging. Academic press, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  7. Avison WR, Turner RJ (1988) Stressful life events and depressive symptoms: disaggregating the effects of acute stressors and chronic strains. J Health Soc Behav 29(3):253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beard JR, Tracy M, Vlahov D, Galea S (2008) Trajectory and socioeconomic predictors of depression in a prospective study of residents of New York City. Ann Epidemiol 18(3):235–243. S1047-2797(07)00440-1[pii]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Birditt KS, Fingerman KL, Almeida DM (2005) Age differences in exposure and reactions to interpersonal tensions: a daily diary study. Psychol Aging 20(2):330–340.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.20.2.330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blanchard DC, Sakai RR, McEwen B, Weiss SM, Blanchard RJ (1993) Subordination stress: behavioral, brain, and neuroendocrine correlates. Behav Brain Res 58(1–2):113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carr D, Umberson D (2013) The social psychology of stress, health, and coping. In: DeLamater J, Ward A (eds) Handbooks of sociology and social research. Handbook of social psychology. Springer Science + Business Media, New York, pp 465–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cook SK, Snellings L, Cohen SA (2018) Socioeconomic and demographic factors modify observed relationship between caregiving intensity and three dimensions of quality of life in informal adult children caregivers. Health Qual Life Outcomes 16(1):169.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-018-0996-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Diwan S, Jonnalagadda SS, Balaswamy S (2004) Resources predicting positive and negative affect during the experience of stress: a study of older Asian Indian immigrants in the United States. [ResearchSupport, U.S. Govand#39;t, P.H.S.]. The Gerontologist 44(5):605–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Forrester SN, Gallo JJ, Whitfield KE, Thorpe RJ Jr (2018) A framework of minority stress: from physiological manifestations to cognitive outcomes. The Gerontologist.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gny104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Galea S, Ahern J, Nandi A, Tracy M, Beard J, Vlahov D (2007) Urban neighborhood poverty and the incidence of depression in a population-based cohort study. Ann Epidemiol 17(3):171–179. S1047-2797(06)00194-3[pii]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garrido P (2011) Aging and stress: past hypotheses, present approaches and perspectives. Aging Dis 2(1):80–99Google Scholar
  17. Gayman MD, Brown RL, Cui M (2011) Depressive symptoms and bodily pain: the role of physical disability and social stress. Stress Health 27(1):52–53.  https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1319gbp106[pii]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grenade L, Boldy D (2008) Social isolation and loneliness among older people: issues and future challenges in community and residential settings. Aust Health Rev 32(3):468–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hafez B, Hafez ES (2004) Stress/aging: endocrine profiles/reproductive dysfunction in men. Arch Androl 50(4):207–238.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01485010490448534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hammen C (2005) Stress and depression. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 1:293–319.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hidalgo V, Pulopulos MM, Salvador A (2019) Acute psychosocial stress effects on memory performance: relevance of age and sex. Neurobiol Learn Mem 157:48–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2018.11.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ibrahim R, Abolfathi Momtaz Y, Hamid TA (2013) Social isolation in older Malaysians: prevalence and risk factors. Psychogeriatrics 13(2):71–79.  https://doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Judge KS, Menne HL, Whitlatch CJ (2010) Stress process model for individuals with dementia. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural.]. Gerontologist 50(3):294–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Juth V, Dickerson S (2013) Social stress. In: Gellman MD, Turner JR (eds) Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Preacher KJ, MacCallum RC, Atkinson C, Malarkey WB, Glaser R (2003) Chronic stress and age-related increases in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(15):9090–9095.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1531903100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kirschbaum C, Pirke KM, Hellhammer DH (1993) The ‘Trier Social Stress Test’ – a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology 28(1–2):76–81.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000119004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krause N (1985) Stress, control beliefs, and psychological distress: the problem of response bias. J Hum Stress 11(1):11–19.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0097840X.1985.9936733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krause N (2006) Social relationships in later life. In: Binstock RH, George LK (eds) Handbook of aging and the social sciences. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  29. Krieger N (2001) Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective. Int J Epidemiol 30(4):668–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Landeiro F, Barrows P, Nuttall Musson E, Gray AM, Leal J (2017) Reducing social isolation and loneliness in older people: a systematic review protocol. BMJ Open 7(5):e013778.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lazarus RS (1966) Some principles of psychological stress and their relation to dentistry. J Dent Res 45(6):1620–1626.  https://doi.org/10.1177/00220345660450060901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lazarus RS, Folkman S (1984) Stress, appraisal, and coping. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. McEwen BS (1998) Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. N Engl J Med 338(3):171–179.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199801153380307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McEwen BS (2000) Definition and concepts of stress. In: Fink G (ed) Encyclopedia of stress. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Meyer IH (2003) Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychol Bull 129(5):674–697.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Min S, Wong Y (2015) Sources of social support and community integration among persons with serious mental illnesses in Korea. J Mental Health 24(4):183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moran KE, Ommerborn MJ, Blackshear CT, Sims M, Clark CR (2019) Financial stress and risk of coronary heart disease in the Jackson heart study. Am J Prev Med 56(2):224–231.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.09.022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Palmer S (1989) Occupational stress. Health Saf Pract 7:16–18Google Scholar
  39. Pearlin LI (1989) The sociological study of stress. J Health Soc Behav 30(3):241–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pearlin LI (2010) The life course and the stress process: some conceptual comparisons. J Gerontol BPsychol Sci Soc Sci 65B(2):207–215.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbp106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pearlin LI, Lieberman MA, Menaghan EG, Mullan JT (1981) The stress process. J Health Soc Behav 22(4):337–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pearlin LI, Mullan JT, Semple SJ, Skaff MM (1990) Caregiving and the stress process: an overview of concepts and their measures. Gerontologist 30(5):583–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pearlin LI, Schieman S, Fazio EM (2005) Stress, health, and the life course: some conceptual perspectives. J Health Soc Behav 46(2):205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Peek MK, Howrey BT, Ternent RS, Ray LA, Ottenbacher KJ (2012) Social support, stressors, and frailty among older Mexican American adults. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 67(6):755–764.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbs081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pryce CR, Fuchs E (2017) Editorial: stressors in animals and humans – practical issues and limitations. Neurobiol Stress 6:1–2.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2017.02.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pulopulos MM, Hidalgo V, Almela M, Puig-Perez S, Villada C, Salvador A (2015) Acute stress and working memory in older people. Stress 18(2):178–187.  https://doi.org/10.3109/10253890.2015.1004538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Scott SB, Munoz E, Mogle JA, Gamaldo AA, Smyth JM, Almeida DM, Sliwinski MJ (2018) Perceived neighborhood characteristics predict severity and emotional response to daily stressors. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. Soc Sci Med 200:262–270.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.11.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Selye H (1955) Stress and disease. Science 122(3171):625–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Selye H (1998) A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. 1936. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 10(2):230–231.  https://doi.org/10.1176/jnp.10.2.230a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stankiewicz AM, Goscik J, Majewska A, Swiergiel AH, Juszczak GR (2015) The effect of acute and chronic social stress on the hippocampal transcriptome in mice. PLoS One 10(11):e0142195.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sterling P, Eyer J (1988) Allostasis: a new paradigm to explain arousal pathology. In: Fisher S, Reason J (eds) Handbook of life stress, cognition and health. Wiley, New York, pp 629–649Google Scholar
  52. Taylor J, Turner RJ (2002) Perceived discrimination, social stress, and depression in the transition to adulthood: racial contrasts. Am Sociol Assoc 65(3):213–225Google Scholar
  53. Turner RJ, Avison WR (2003) Status variations in stress exposure: implications for the interpretation of research on race, socioeconomic status, and gender. J Health Soc Behav 44(4):488–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Utsey SO, Chae MH, Brown CF, Kelly D (2002a) Effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol 8(4):366–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Utsey SO, Payne YA, Jackson ES, Jones AM (2002b) Race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol 8(3):224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wheaton B (1994) Sampling the stress universe. In: Avison WR, Gotlib IH (eds) Stress and mental health. Plenum Press, New York, pp 77–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Williams DR, Neighbors HW, Jackson JS (2003) Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: findings from community studies. Am J Public Health 93(2):200–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yaribeygi H, Panahi Y, Sahraei H, Johnston TP, Sahebkar A (2017) The impact of stress on body function: a review. EXCLI J 16:1057–1072.  https://doi.org/10.17179/excli2017-480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uyen-Sa D. T. Nguyen
    • 1
  • Lien Quach
    • 2
    • 3
  • Thanh V. Tran
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biostatistics and EpidemiologySchool of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Science CenterFort WorthUSA
  2. 2.Boston VA Research Institute, Inc.BostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of GerontologyUniversity of Massachusetts BostonBostonUSA
  4. 4.Boston College School of Social WorkChestnut HillUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joonmo Son
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore