Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management

Living Edition
| Editors: Lauren R. Shapiro, Marie-Helen Maras

Maritime Security and Piracy: Effects of Armed Guards on Board

  • Yarin Eski
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69891-5_89-1

Definition

Armed private security guards aboard ships protect ships and their crews against pirate attacks at sea by using nonlethal and lethal force.

Introduction

Armed private security guards on board of ships for protection against piracy have a long history. It dates back to Ancient Greece when hired groups of mariners were tasked by city-states to capture and hand over ship crews of enemy forces but also share captured booty (Ormerod 1997: 34). During the age of colonization, in particular in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, naval wars between rivaling colonizing European countries peaked. Governments made use of privateers (or buccaneers), which was actually a sort of licensed piracy since these privateers held a “letter of marque” from a sovereign nation to attack the sovereign’s enemies (Renwick and Abbott 1999). They were considered maritime mercenaries that had their own vessel, hired and fighting for their respective governments for financial gain. The use of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Beri, R. (2011). Piracy in Somalia: Addressing the root causes. Strategic Analysis, 35(3), 452–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BMP4. (2011). Best management practices for protection against Somalia based piracy. Available at http://eunavfor.eu/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/bmp4-low-res_sept_5_20111.pdf.
  3. Chapsos, I. (2014). The privatisation of international security: The regulatory framework for private maritime security companies, using operations off Somalia, 2005–13, as a case study. PhD Thesis, Coventry University, Coventry.Google Scholar
  4. Eski, Y. (2016). Policing, port security and crime control: An ethnography of the port Securityscape. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Gould, A. (2017). Global assemblages and counter-piracy: Public and private in maritime policing. Policing and Society, 27(4), 408–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Haywood, R., & Spivak, R. (2013). Maritime piracy. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jeffrey, R. S. (2010). An efficient solution in a time of economic hardship: The right to keep and bear arms in self-defense against pirates. Journal of Maritime Law & Commerce, 41, 507–540.Google Scholar
  8. Krahmann, E. (2016). Choice, voice, and exit: Consumer power and the self-regulation of the private security industry. European Journal of International Security, 1(1), 27–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Larner, W. (2000). Neo-liberalism: Policy, ideology, governmentality. Studies in Political Economy, 63, 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Liss, C. (2007). The privatisation of maritime security-maritime security in Southeast Asia: Between a rock and a hard place? In T. Jäger & G. Kümmel (Eds.), Private military and security companies (pp. 135–148). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liss, C., & Schneider, P. (2015). Regulating private maritime security providers. Ocean Development & International Law, 46(2), 81–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mudrić, M. (2011). Armed guards on vessels: Insurance and liability. Poredbeno Pomorsko Pravo, 50(165), 217–268.Google Scholar
  13. Ormerod, H. A. (1997). Piracy in the ancient world. Baltimore: JHU Press.Google Scholar
  14. Pizor, B. E. (2012). Lending an invisible hand to the navy: Armed guards as a free market assistance to defeating piracy. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 45(2012), 545–578.Google Scholar
  15. Ralby, I. (2018). What went wrong when regulating private maritime security companies. In Operational law in International Straits and current maritime security challenges (pp. 161–180). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Renwick, N., & Abbott, J. (1999). Piratical violence and maritime security in Southeast Asia. Security Dialogue, 30(2), 183–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Symmons, C. R. (2012). Embarking vessel protection detachments and private armed guards on board commercial vessels: International legal consequences and problems under the law of the sea. Military Law and the Law of War Review, 51, 21.Google Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Chapsos, I., & Kitchen, C. (Eds.). (2015). Strengthening maritime security through cooperation (Vol. 122). Amsterdam: IOS Press.Google Scholar
  2. Cullen, P., & Berube, C. (Eds.). (2012). Maritime private security: Market responses to piracy, terrorism and waterborne security risks in the 21st century. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Knowledge Hub Security and Societal Resilience/Political Science and Public AdministrationVrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamNetherlands