Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management

Living Edition
| Editors: Lauren R. Shapiro, Marie-Helen Maras

Investigations: Terrorism

  • James M. Duggan
  • James J. F. ForestEmail author
Living reference work entry

Later version available View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69891-5_185-1

Definition

As explained in the “Criminals: Terrorists” chapter of this volume, terrorists are criminals who commit or directly support acts of violence in order to achieve some type of sociopolitical objectives. An important distinction made in any potential law enforcement investigation is that a “US person” (USPER) is any US citizen or alien granted permanent residency (colloquially known as a “green card”).

Introduction

The organizational and operational frameworks within which terrorism investigations are conducted have been significantly enhanced since the attacks of September 11, 2001. Though most will agree that the assorted measures to improve our national security have succeeded in their intent, critics decry the changes as intrusions upon our civil rights and liberties (Chang 2014). Conversely, some may question why the FBI didn’t do more in certain instances to protect the USA from harm inflicted by terrorists, just as the FBI bemoans the legal constraints placed upon their...

Keywords

Terrorists Terrorism Investigation 
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References

  1. Chang, N. (2014). The USA PATRIOT Act: What’s so patriotic about trampling on the Bill of Rights? In J. J. F. Forest, R. D. Howard, & J. C. Moore (Eds.), Homeland security and terrorism (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  2. Crenshaw, M., & LaFree, G. (2017). Countering terrorism. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  3. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Eco-terror indictments: ‘Operation Backfire’ nets 11. Retrieved from https://archives.fbi.gov/archives/news/stories/2006/january/elf012006
  4. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), National Security Branch (NSB). Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/about/leadership-and-structure/national-security-branch
  5. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978. (1978). Pub. L. no. 95–511, 92 Stat. 1783Google Scholar
  6. Forest, J. J. F. (2013). Intersections of crime and terror. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fuller, R., United States of America v. Cromitie, D. Williams, O. Willams, & Payen (Affidavit for Arrest Warrants), May 9, 2009. Retrieved from https://www.investigativeproject.org/documents/case_docs/952.pdf
  8. Golden, R. D. (2014). What price security? The USA PATRIOT Act and America’s balance between freedom and security. In J. J. F. Forest, R. D. Howard, & J. C. Moore (Eds.), Homeland security and terrorism (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  9. Heisig, E. (2018). Lawyer for suspect in Cleveland Fourth of July terrorism plot seeks competency evaluation for client. Cleveland.com. Retrieved from https://www.cleveland.com/court-justice/index.ssf/2018/07/lawyer_for_cleveland_terrorism.html
  10. Hook, B. H., Peterlin, M. J. A., & Welsh, P. L. (2014). The USA PATRIOT Act and information sharing between the intelligence and law enforcement communities. In J. J. F. Forest, R. D. Howard, & J. C. Moore (Eds.), Homeland security and terrorism (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  11. Shipler, D. K. (2012). Terrorist Plots, Hatched by the F.B.I. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/29/opinion/sunday/terrorist-plots-helped-along-by-the-fbi.html
  12. Sinai, J. (2014). Najibullah Zazi’s plot to bomb the New York City subway system. In J. J. F. Forest, R. D. Howard, & J. C. Moore (Eds.), Homeland security and terrorism (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  13. United States of America v. Cromitie (Williams), 727 F.3d 194 (6th Cir., 2012). Retrieved from https://cases.justia.com/federal/appellate-courts/ca2/11-2763/11-2763-2013-08-23.pdf?ts=1410918996
  14. United States Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Fact sheet: Update to suspicious activity reporting functional standard provides greater privacy and civil liberties protections (May 21, 2009). Retrieved from https://www.dni.gov/files/ISE/documents/DocumentLibrary/SAR/ISE-SAR_Functional_Standard_V1_5_Fact_Sheet.pdf
  15. Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 109-58, 115 Stat. 272 (2001).Google Scholar
  16. Wilbur, D. Q. (2016). The FBI investigated the Orlando mass shooter for 10 months – And found nothing. Here’s why. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-fbi-investigation-mateen-20160712-snap-story.html
  17. Wilson, A. J., United States of America v. Demetrius Pitts (affidavit), July 2, 2018. Retrieved from https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/4569149/PITTSaffidavitforcomplaint.pdf

Further Reading

  1. Crenshaw, M., & LaFree, G. (2017). Countering terrorism. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  2. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2016). Domestic investigations and operations guide. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  3. Forest, J. J. F. (2015). Essentials of counterterrorism. Westport: Praeger Security International.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Terrorism and Security StudiesUniversity of Massachusetts LowellLowellUSA