Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management

Living Edition
| Editors: Lauren R. Shapiro, Marie-Helen Maras

Emergency Management: Evacuations

  • Michael K. LindellEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69891-5_106-1

Definition

Evacuation is a process intended to temporarily move people from a hazardous location to a place of greater safety.

Introduction

This entry addresses vehicular evacuation from environmental hazards, but not pedestrian evacuation from buildings, aircraft, or ships because the scale and dynamics of these evacuations is quite different (Aguirre et al. 2011; Bolton 2007; Nelson and Mowrer 2002; Peacock et al. 2011). Moreover, the focus is on preimpact rather than postimpact evacuations because preimpact evacuations face the challenge of clearing the risk area before the beginning of hazard exposure (Cova et al. 2017).

Small-scale evacuations can be improvised by risk area residents without any coordination by authorities, as was the case in the American Samoa tsunami (Lindell et al. 2015). Large-scale evacuations take place surprisingly frequently; an evacuation involving 1000 people or more takes place every 2–3 weeks in the United States (Dotson and Jones 2005). Moreover,...

Keywords

Risk area Evacuation route system (ERS) Evacuation demand Evacuation capacity Contraflow Phased evacuation Evacuation re-entry 
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Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants IIS-1540469, CMMI-1760766, and CMMI-1826455. None of the conclusions expressed here necessarily reflects views other than those of the author.

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Further Reading

  1. Lindell, M. K., Murray-Tuite, P., Wolshon, B., & Baker, E. J. (2019). Large-scale evacuation: The analysis, modeling, and management of emergency relocation from hazardous areas. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Tierney, K. J., & Waugh, W. F., Jr. (Eds.). (2007). Emergency management: Principles and practice for local government (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: International City/County Management Association.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Hazards Mitigation Planning and ResearchUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA