Good Health and Well-Being

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Tony Wall, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar

Mental Toughness Development

  • Tony WallEmail author
  • Doug StrycharczykEmail author
  • Peter Clough
Living reference work entry


There are a variety of definitions of mental toughness, and while there is no consensus on definition (Crust 2008), an indicative definition is that it is “a narrow plastic personality trait which explains in large part how individuals respond differently to the same or similar stressors, pressures, opportunities and challenges irrespective of prevailing circumstances” (Clough and Strycharczyk 2015: 33). As it is plastic, it means it can change and be developed over time, in ways which shape the experiences of the person in their life, and the way they psychologically and physically respond to their circumstances.


Though there are different conceptions of mental toughness, there are a number of important commonalities, including self-belief, attentional control, resilience, a success mindset, optimistic thinking, emotional awareness and regulation, ability to deal with perceived challenge, and contextual awareness and understanding (Crust and Clough 2011). As...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Thriving at Work Research CentreUniversity of ChesterChesterUK
  2. 2.AQR InternationalChesterUK
  3. 3.University of HuddersfieldHuddersfieldUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tony Wall
    • 1
  1. 1.International Thriving at Work Research CentreUniversity of ChesterChesterUK