Zero Hunger

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Self-Sufficiency and Environmental Sustainability in Agriculture

  • Dara V. GaevaEmail author
  • Evgeny V. Krasnov
  • Timur V. Gaev
Living reference work entry


According to Pradhan et al. (2014), a region is food self-sufficient when its total calorie production is enough to meet its demand (Pradhan et al. 2014). Altieri et al. (2012) confirm that the major emphasis of agroecological systems is on the promotion of food sovereignty as the right of everyone to have access to safe, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food in sufficient quantity and quality for sustaining a healthy life and a human dignity. In consonance with FAO (FAO statistical pocket book), the self-sufficiency ratio (SSR) is defined as: SSR = production × 100/(production + imports − exports). The SSR can be calculated for individual commodities, groups of commodities of similar nutritional values, and, after appropriate conversion of the commodity equations, also for the aggregate of all commodities. In the context of food security, the SSR is often taken to indicate the extent to which a country relies on its own production resources, i.e., the higher the...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dara V. Gaeva
    • 1
    Email author
  • Evgeny V. Krasnov
    • 1
  • Timur V. Gaev
    • 2
  1. 1.The Institute of Environmental Management, Urban Development and Spatial Planning (IEMUD&SP)Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal UniversityKaliningradRussia
  2. 2.Kaliningrad branch of Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian UniversityKaliningradRussia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tony Wall
    • 1
  1. 1.International Thriving at Work Research CentreUniversity of ChesterChesterUK