Zero Hunger

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Self-Sufficiency and Environmental Sustainability in Agriculture

  • Dara V. GaevaEmail author
  • Evgeny V. Krasnov
  • Timur V. Gaev
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69626-3_98-1

Definition

According to Pradhan et al. (2014), a region is food self-sufficient when its total calorie production is enough to meet its demand (Pradhan et al. 2014). Altieri et al. (2012) confirm that the major emphasis of agroecological systems is on the promotion of food sovereignty as the right of everyone to have access to safe, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food in sufficient quantity and quality for sustaining a healthy life and a human dignity. In consonance with FAO (FAO statistical pocket book), the self-sufficiency ratio (SSR) is defined as: SSR = production × 100/(production + imports − exports). The SSR can be calculated for individual commodities, groups of commodities of similar nutritional values, and, after appropriate conversion of the commodity equations, also for the aggregate of all commodities. In the context of food security, the SSR is often taken to indicate the extent to which a country relies on its own production resources, i.e., the higher the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Altieri MA et al (2012) Agroecologically efficient agricultural systems for smallholder farmers: contributions to food sovereignty. Agron Sustain Dev 32(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balzan MV et al (2016) Utilisation of plant functional diversity in wildflower strips for the delivery of multiple agroecosystem services. Entomol Exp Appl 158(3):304–319.  https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bateman IJ (2013) Bringing ecosystem services into economic decision-making: land use in the United Kingdom. Science 341(6141):45–50.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1234379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belfrage K et al (2015) Effects of farm size and on-farm landscape heterogeneity on biodiversity – case study of twelve farms in a Swedish landscape. Agroecol Sustain Food Syst 39(2):170–188.  https://doi.org/10.1080/21683565.2014.967437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bojar E et al (2016) Cluster initiatives in Eastern Poland: good practices in agriculture and food-processing industry. In: Food Security and Industrial Clustering in Northeast Asia. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 227–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bukovinszky T et al (2017) Exploring the relationships between landscape complexity, wild bee species richness and reproduction, and pollination services along a complexity gradient in the Netherlands. Biol Conserv 214:312–319.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.08.027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chan KMA et al (2012) Where are cultural and social in ecosystem services? A framework for constructive engagement. Bioscience 62(8):744–756.  https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.8.7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ciceri D, Allanore A (2019) Local fertilizers to achieve food self-sufficiency in Africa. Sci Total Environ 648:669–680.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. D’Odorico P et al (2014) Feeding humanity through global food trade. Earth’s Future 2(9):458–469.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014EF000250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis KF et al (2016) Sustaining food self-sufficiency of a nation: the case of Sri Lankan rice production and related water and fertilizer demands. Ambio 45(3):302–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Estévez V et al (2016) The gluten-free basic food basket: a problem of availability, cost and nutritional composition. Eur J Clin Nutr 70(10):1215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. European Union (2016) Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics 2016 edition. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/3217494/7777899/KS-FK-16-001-EN-N.pdf/cae3c56f-53e2-404a-9e9e-fb5f57ab49e3
  13. Falconí F et al (2017) Caloric unequal exchange in Latin America and the Caribbean. Ecol Econ 134:140–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.01.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. FAO (2018b) FAO Average dietary energy supply adequacy (%) (3-year average). https://landportal.org/book/indicator/fao-21010-6121
  15. Foyer C et al (2016) Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production. Nat Plants 2(8):16112.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nplants.2016.112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garibaldi LA et al (2016) Mutually beneficial pollinator diversity and crop yield outcomes in small and large farms. Science 351(6271):388–391.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac7287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Garibaldi L et al (2017) Farming approaches for greater biodiversity, livelihoods, and food security. Trends Ecol Evol 32(1):68–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2016.10.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghose B (2014) Food security and food self-sufficiency in China: from past to 2050. Food Energy Secur 3(2):86–95.  https://doi.org/10.1002/fes3.48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gliessman SR (2014) Agroecology: the ecology of sustainable food systems. CRC press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Herrero M, Thornton P (2013) Livestock and global change: emerging issues for sustainable food systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110(52):20878–20881.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1321844111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ittersum V et al (2016) Can sub-Saharan Africa feed itself? Proc Natl Acad Sci 113(52):14964–14969.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1610359113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jane Dillon E et al (2016) Measuring progress in agricultural sustainability to support policy-making. Int J Agric Sustain 14(1):31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jensen J et al (2016) National monitoring study in Denmark finds increased and critical levels of copper and zinc in arable soils fertilized with pig slurry. Environ Pollut 214:334–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kennedy CM et al (2013) A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on wild bee pollinators in agroecosystems. Ecol Lett 16(5):584–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kremen C (2012) Diversified farming systems: an agroecological, systems-based alternative to modern industrial agriculture. Ecol Soc 17(4):44. www.jstor.org/stable/26269193Google Scholar
  26. Landis DA (2017) Designing agricultural landscapes for biodiversity-based ecosystem services. Basic Appl Ecol 18:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lassaletta L et al (2016) Nitrogen use in the global food system: past trends and future trajectories of agronomic performance, pollution, trade, and dietary demand. Environ Res Lett 11(9):095007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Latvijas statistika (2017) Pesticide use per 1 ha of sown area: 1.04 kg on cereals and 1.54 kg on rape | Latvijas statistika. [online]. Available at: http://www.csb.gov.lv/en/notikumi/pesticide-use-1-ha-sown-area-104-kg-cereals-and-154-kg-rape-36641.html. Accessed 31 Oct 2017
  29. Lowder SK et al (2016) The number, size, and distribution of farms, smallholder farms, and family farms worldwide. World Dev 87:16–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mbow C et al (2014) Achieving mitigation and adaptation to climate change through sustainable agroforestry practices in Africa. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 6: 8–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.09.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McDonald B, Stukenbrock E (2016) Rapid emergence of pathogens in agro-ecosystems: global threats to agricultural sustainability and food security. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 371(1709):20160026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McMichael AJ et al (2007) Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health. Lancet 370(9594): 1253–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mont O, Nilsson H (2017) Socioeconomic aspects of farmers’ markets in Sweden. Syst Innov Sustain 3:113–128Google Scholar
  34. Nezomba H et al (2018) Integrated soil fertility management sequences for reducing climate risk in smallholder crop production systems in southern Africa. Field Crop Res 224:102–114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2018.05.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Notarnicola B et al (2017) Environmental impacts of food consumption in Europe. J Clean Prod 140:753–765.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. OECD/FAO (2016) OECD-FAO agricultural outlook 2016–2025. OECD Publishing, Paris.  https://doi.org/10.1787/agr_outlook-2016-enCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Olsson V (2015) Local and regional food-perspectives from the south Baltic region of Sweden. Perspectives on local and regional food in the South Baltic Region, 43. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:859003/FULLTEXT02.pdf#page=44
  38. Otsuka K et al (2016) The future of small farms in Asia. Dev Policy Rev 34(3):441–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pradhan P et al (2014) Food self-sufficiency across scales: how local can we go? Environ Sci Technol 48(16):9463–9470.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es5005939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rasmussen L et al (2017) Bridging the practitioner-researcher divide: Indicators to track environmental, economic, and sociocultural sustainability of agricultural commodity production. Glob Environ Chang 42:33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Samberg LH et al (2016) Subnational distribution of average farm size and smallholder contributions to global food production. Environ Res Lett 11(12):124010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schmidt MC et al (2016) Increasing farm income and local food access: a case study of a collaborative aggregation, marketing, and distribution strategy that links farmers to markets. J Agric Food Syst Commun Dev 1(4):157–175Google Scholar
  43. Van Oort PAJ et al (2015) Assessment of rice self-sufficiency in 2025 in eight African countries. Glob Food Sec 5:39–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2015.01.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vanlauwe B et al (2014) A fourth principle is required to define conservation agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa: the appropriate use of fertilizer to enhance crop productivity. Field Crop Res 155:10–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2013.10.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Veldhuis A et al (2017) Environmentally sustainable localised food systems: opportunities and challenges. Production Planning & Control. https://repository.uwl.ac.uk/id/eprint/3542/
  46. Vignola R et al (2015) Ecosystem-based adaptation for smallholder farmers: definitions, opportunities and constraints. Agric Ecosyst Environ 211:126–132.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.05.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang H et al (2014) Can community gardens and farmers’ markets relieve food desert problems? A study of Edmonton, Canada. Appl Geogr 55:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang W et al (2016) Closing yield gaps in China by empowering smallholder farmers. Nature 537(7622): 671.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19368CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dara V. Gaeva
    • 1
    Email author
  • Evgeny V. Krasnov
    • 1
  • Timur V. Gaev
    • 2
  1. 1.The Institute of Environmental Management, Urban Development and Spatial Planning (IEMUD&SP)Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal UniversityKaliningradRussia
  2. 2.Kaliningrad branch of Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian UniversityKaliningradRussia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tony Wall
    • 1
  1. 1.International Thriving at Work Research CentreUniversity of ChesterChesterUK