Zero Hunger

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Rural Infrastructure and Food Security

  • Junaid Alam Memon
  • Hamid El BilaliEmail author
Living reference work entry



Infrastructure: “The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise” (Oxford University Press 2018).

Based on the above definition, the term rural infrastructure can be defined as: The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, power supplies, irrigation network, extension services, warehouses, storage facilities) needed for the operation of a rural society.


The Target 2.a of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 “Zero Hunger” links increase of investment in rural infrastructure, among others, with the enhancement of agricultural productive capacity in developing countries. This target aims to “Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development, and plant and...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Comin D (2006) Total factor productivity. Accessed 25 Jun 2018
  2. de Vries E (1960) Finance for development. In: Proceedings of the international conference of agricultural economists. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. deGrassi A (2005) Transport, poverty and agrarian change in Africa: models, mechanisms and new ways forward. IDS Bull 36:52–57. Scholar
  4. Department for International Development-UK (1999) Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets. Department for International Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Fan S, Hazell P, Haque T (1998) Role of infrastructure in production growth and poverty reduction in Indian Rainfed agriculture. Project Report to the Indian Council for Agricultural Research and the World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Fan S, Cho EE, Rue C (2018) Returns to public agricultural and rural investments in China. China Agricultural Economic Review 10(2):215–223. Scholar
  7. FAO (2011) Global food losses and food waste: extent, causes and prevention. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  8. FAO (2017) The future of food and agriculture – trends and challenges. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  9. FAO, IFAD, WFP (2014) The state of food insecurity in the world 2014. Strengthening the enabling environment for food security and nutrition. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  10. Fosu KY, Heerink N, Jhoudo KE, Kuiper M, Kuyvenhoven A (1995) Public goods and services and food security: theory and modelling approaches with special reference to Ghana and Burkina Faso. In: SADACC seminar, 13–15 March, AccraGoogle Scholar
  11. Harding R, Wantchekon L (2012) Food security and public investment in rural infrastructure: some political economy considerations. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Regional Bureau for Africa, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. HLPE (2014) Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food systems. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on food security and nutrition of the committee on world food security, RomeGoogle Scholar
  13. IFAD (1995) The state of world rural poverty: a profile of Asia. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), RomeGoogle Scholar
  14. IFAD (2003) Promoting market access for the rural poor in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), RomeGoogle Scholar
  15. IFAD (2016) Rural development report 2016: fostering inclusive rural transformation. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), RomeGoogle Scholar
  16. IFPRI (2017) 2017 global food policy report. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC.
  17. Ishikawa S (1967) Economic development in Asian perspective. Kinokuniya Bookstore Co., TokyoGoogle Scholar
  18. Jacoby HG (2017) “Well-fare” economics of groundwater in South Asia. World Bank Res Obs 32:1–20. Scholar
  19. Juma C (2011) The new harvest: agricultural innovation in Africa. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  20. Kanuganti S, Sarkar AK, Singh AP, Arkatkar SS (2015) Quantification of accessibility to health facilities in rural areas. Case Stud Transp Policy. Scholar
  21. Koohafkan P, Salman M, Casarotto C (2012) Investments in land and water. SOLAW background thematic report – TR17 0–27Google Scholar
  22. Land Portal (2018) Food security (2011 suite). Accessed 24 Jun 2018
  23. Lewis AW (1955) The theory of economic growth. Allen Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Mellor JW (1976) The new economics of growth: strategy for India and the developing world. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  25. Memon JA, Thapa GB (2011) The Indus irrigation system, natural resources, and community occupational quality in the delta region of Pakistan. Environ Manag 47:173–187. Scholar
  26. Memon JA, Hussain A (2018) Consumer Co-ownership in Renewables in Pakistan. In: Jens Lowitzsch (ed.). Energy Transition – Financing consumer (co-)ownership in renewables – 18 country studies and a comparative analysis Palgrave MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  27. Memon JA, Alizai MQ, Hussain A (2017a) Who will think outside the sink? Farmers’ willingness to invest in technologies for groundwater sustainability in Pakistan. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  28. Memon JA, Jogezai G, Hussain A, Alizai MQ, Baloch MA (2017b) Rehabilitating traditional irrigation systems: assessing popular support for Karez rehabilitation in Balochistan, Pakistan. Hum Ecol 45. Scholar
  29. Olawale R (2016) Education in rural Nigeria: an assessment. Accessed 27 Jun 2018
  30. Oxford University Press (2018) Definition of infrastructure in English by Oxford dictionaries. Accessed 26 Jun 2018
  31. Panagariya DA (2014) The challenges and innovative solutions to rural health dilemmas. Ann Neurosci 21:125–127. Scholar
  32. Pinstrup-Andersen P, Shimokawa S (2006) Rural infrastructure and agricultural development. In: Bourguignon F, Pleskovic B (eds) Annual bank conference on development economics, Tokyo, 29–30 May 2006Google Scholar
  33. Plessis-Fraissard M (2011) Rural roads important to global development. Accessed 20 Jun 2018
  34. Ringler C (2017) Investments in irrigation for global food security. Int Food Res Policy Inst CGIAR.
  35. Rosegrant MW (2003) Global food security: challenges and policies. Science 302:1917–1919. Scholar
  36. Satish P (2007) Rural infrastructure and growth: an overview. Indian J Agric Econ 62:32–51Google Scholar
  37. Setboonsarng S (2008) The impact of rural infrastructure and agricultural support services on poverty: case of Agrarian Reform Communities in the Philippines. Asian Development Bank Institute discussion paper 110, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  38. Sheahan M, Barrett CB (2017) Review: food loss and waste in Sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy 70:1–12. Scholar
  39. Shenggen Fan, Emily EunYoung Cho, Christopher Rue, (2018) Returns to public agricultural and rural investments in China. China Agricultural Economic Review 10(2):215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sreekanthachari JG, Nagaraja G (2013) An overview of rural education in India. Adv Res J Soc Sci 4:115–119Google Scholar
  41. Strasser R (2003) Rural health around the world: challenges and solutions. Fam Pract. 20(4):457–463. Scholar
  42. TRIP (2017) Rural connections: challenges and opportunities in America’s heartland. Accessed 20 June 2018
  43. Turral H, Svendsen M, Faures JM (2010) Investing in irrigation: reviewing the past and looking to the future. Agric Water Manag 97:551–560. Scholar
  44. United Nations (2015) Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. United Nations (2017) Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Report of the Secretary-General, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. United Nations (2018) Global SDG indicators database. Accessed 25 Jun 2018
  47. United Nations System High Level Task Force on Global Food Security (2011) Food and nutrition security: comprehensive framework for action. Summary of the updated comprehensive framework for action (UCFA), Rome.
  48. Ward FA (2010) Financing irrigation water management and infrastructure: a review. Int J Water Resour Dev 26:321–349. Scholar
  49. World Bank (1994) World development report: infrastructure for development. World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. World Bank (1997) Rural development: vision to action – a sector strategy. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  51. World Bank (2007) World development report 2008: agriculture for development. World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. World Bank (2016a) Poverty and shared prosperity 2016: taking on inequality. World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. World Bank (2016b) Measuring rural access: using new technologies. World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. World Bank (2017) World development report 2018: learning to realize education’s promise. The World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Public Policy, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE)IslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Centre for Development Research (CDR)University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU)ViennaAustria

Section editors and affiliations

  • Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Agricultural ManagementRasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, RashtRashtIran