Zero Hunger

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Non-farm Employment: A Key Challenge to Achieve Zero Hunger

Living reference work entry


The rural non-farm economy (RNFE) includes all rural economic activity outside of agriculture. It contains small- and large-scale activities; self-employment; wage employment in commerce, manufacturing, and service; full-time, part-time, formal, informal, seasonal, and episodic non-farm production (Haggblade et al. 2002).

Non-farm employment includes agro-processing, commerce, charcoal production, transport services, manufacturing, repair services, wage work, firewood gathering, and seasonal migration. Agro-processing, generally, includes processing of shea nuts, groundnuts, rice, and cotton ginnery. Other activities are related to trading in foodstuff such as maize, beans, grains, and sand winning and selling handicraft products (Owusu et al. 2011). These activities could take place at home, in factories, or by itinerant traders.

Food insecurity is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2014) as “a situation that exists when people...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Faculty of AgricultureAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Laboratory of Forest Economics, Faculty of Forestry and Natural EnvironmentAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

Section editors and affiliations

  • Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural ManagementRasht Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityRashtIran