Advertisement

Retinoids

  • Sonja C. MolinEmail author
  • Thomas Ruzicka
Reference work entry

Abstract

Vitamin A derivatives have revolutionized dermatologic treatment.

The immune modulating, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory efficacy of retinoids is mediated by two nuclear receptor families: retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors.

Vitamin A derivatives can be classified due to their receptor-binding profile, their belonging to different generations of retinoids, or their mode of application.

Due to their teratogenic potential, safe contraception with adequate methods prior, during, and after treatment with systemic and some topical retinoids according to current national guidelines is absolutely mandatory.

With appropriate and careful therapeutic management by a physician familiar with retinoid use, vitamin A derivatives can be effective treatment options for many dermatologic disorders.

Relevant retinoid-responsive diseases in occupational dermatology are, for example, acne, psoriasis, and chronic hand eczema.

Keywords

Acne  Alitretinoin Hand eczema Isotretinoin Psoriasis Retinoids 

References

  1. Berkers JA, Hassing I, Spenkelink B et al (1995) Interactive effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and retinoids on proliferation and differentiation in cultured human keratinocytes: quantification of cross-linked envelope formation. Arch Toxicol 69:368–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bollag W, Ott F (1999) Successful treatment of chronic hand eczema with oral 9- cis-retinoic acid. Dermatology 199:308–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chandraratna RAS, Klein ES (1998) Retinoid nuclear receptors. In: Lowe N, Marks R (eds) Retinoids. A clinician’s guide, 2nd edn. Martin Dunitz, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheng C, Michaels J, Scheinfeld N (2008) Alitretinoin: a comprehensive review. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 17:437–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Connor MJ (1998) Mechanisms of retinoid action in the skin. In: Lowe N, Marks R (eds) Retinoids. A clinician’s guide, 2nd edn. Martin Dunitz, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Diepgen TL, Pfarr E, Zimmermann T (2012) Efficacy and tolerability of alitretinoin for chronic hand eczema under daily practice conditions: results of the TOCCATA open study comprising 680 patients. Acta Derm Venereol 92:251–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Duvic M, Hymes K, Heald P et al (2001a) Bexarotene is effective and safe for treatment of refractory advanced-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: multinational phase II-III trial results. J Clin Oncol 19:2456–2471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Duvic M, Martin AG, Kim Y et al (2001b) Phase 2 and 3 clinical trial of oral bexarotene (Targretin capsules) for the treatment of refractory or persistent early-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Arch Dermatol 137:581–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fowler JF (1999) Acne, folliculitis, and chloracne. In: Adams RM (ed) Adams occupational skin disease, 3rd edn. W.B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  10. Freeman S (1999) Diagnosis and differential diagnosis. In: Adams RM (ed) Adams occupational skin disease, 3rd edn. W.B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Ganceviciene R, Zoubulis C (2010) Isotretinoin: state of the art treatment for acne vulgaris. Acne Today J Dtsch Dermatol Ges Suppl 1:S47–S59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gauwerky K, Klövekorn W, Korting HC et al (2009) Rosacea. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 7:996–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Grahovac M, Molin S, Prinz JC et al (2009) Treatment of atopic eczema with oral alitretinoin. Br J Dermatol 162:217–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Griffiths CE (2001) The role of retinoids in the prevention and repair of aged and photoaged skin. Clin Exp Dermatol 26:613–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Heald P, Mehlmauer M, Martin AG et al (2003) Topical bexarotene therapy for patients with refractory or persistent early-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: results of the phase III clinical trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 49:801–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang YC, Cheng YC (2017) Isotretinoin treatment for acne and risk of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol 76:1068–1076PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kapser C, Herzinger T, Ruzicka T et al (2015) Treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with oral alitretinoin. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 29:783–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kontaxakis VP, Skourides D, Ferentinos P et al (2009) Isotretinoin and psychopathology: a review. Ann General Psychiatry 8:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumari V, Timm KK, Kühl AA, Heine G, Worm M (2016) Impact of systemic alitretinoin treatment on skin barrier gene and protein expression in patients with chronic hand eczema. Br J Dermatol 175:1243–1250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kunz M, Urosevic-Maiwald M, Goldinger SM et al (2016) Efficacy and safety of oral alitretinoin in severe oral lichen planus – results of a prospective pilot study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 30:293–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Le Moigne M, Bulteau S, Grall-Bronnec M et al (2017) Psychiatric disorders, acne and systemic retinoids: comparison of risks. Expert Opin Drug Saf 16:989–995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lebwohl M, Drake L, Menter A (2001) Consensus conference: acitretin in combination with UVB or PUVA in the treatment of psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 45:544–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee CS, Li K (2009) A review of acitretin for the treatment of psoriasis. Expert Opin Drug Saf 8:769–779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lowe NJ (1998a) Keratinization disorders. In: Lowe N, Marks R (eds) Retinoids. A clinician’s guide, 2nd edn. Martin Dunitz, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Lowe NJ (1998b) Psoriasis: systemic retinoid treatment. In: Lowe N, Marks R (eds) Retinoids. A clinician’s guide, 2nd edn. Martin Dunitz, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Lowe NJ, David M (1998) Toxicity. In: Lowe N, Marks R (eds) Retinoids. A clinician’s guide, 2nd edn. Martin Dunitz, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Marks R (1998) Lichen planus and cutaneous lupus erythematosus. In: Lowe N, Marks R (eds) Retinoids. A clinician’s guide, 2nd edn. Martin Dunitz, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Molin S, Ruzicka T (2008) Alitretinoin: a new treatment option for chronic refractory hand eczema [review]. Hautarzt 59:703–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ruzicka T, Meurer M, Bieber T (1988) Efficiency of acitretin in the treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Arch Dermatol 124:897–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ruzicka T, Sommerburg C, Braun-Falco O et al (1990) Efficiency of acitretin in combination with UV-B in the treatment of severe psoriasis. Arch Dermatol 126:482–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ruzicka T, Sommerburg C, Goerz G et al (1992) Treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus with acitretin and hydroxychloroquine. Br J Dermatol 127:513–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ruzicka T, Larsen FG, Galewicz D et al (2004) Oral alitretinoin (9- cis-retinoic acid) therapy for chronic hand dermatitis in patients refractory to standard therapy: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Arch Dermatol 140:1453–1459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ruzicka T, Lynde CW, Jemec GB et al (2008) Efficacy and safety of oral alitretinoin (9- cis retinoic acid) in patients with severe chronic hand eczema refractory to topical corticosteroids: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Br J Dermatol 158:808–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Thestrup-Pedersen K, Andersen KE, Menné T et al (2001) Treatment of hyperkeratotic dermatitis of the palms (eczema keratoticum) with oral acitretin. A single-blind placebo-controlled study. Acta Derm Venereol 81:353–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thielitz A, Gollnick H (2008) Topical retinoids in acne vulgaris: update on efficacy and safety. Am J Clin Dermatol 9:369–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Thielitz A, Abdel-Naser MB, Fluhr JW et al (2010) Topical retinoids in acne – an evidence-based overview. Acne Today J Dtsch Dermatol Ges Suppl 1:S15–S23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Trautinger F, Eder J, Assaf C et al (2017) European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer consensus recommendations for the treatment of mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome – update 2017. Eur J Cancer 77:57–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vahlquist A (2007) Retinoids and the skin: from vitamin a in human epidermis to the pharmacology of oral retinoids in dermatology. In: Vahlquist A, Duvic M (eds) Retinoids and carotenoids in dermatology, 1st edn. Informa Healthcare, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vahlquist A, Rollmann O, Shroot B (1998) Pharmacokinetics of oral retinoids in clinical practice. In: Lowe N, Marks R (eds) Retinoids. A clinician’s guide, 2nd edn. Martin Dunitz, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Wiegand UW, Chou RC (1998) Pharmacokinetics of acitretin and etretinate. J Am Acad Dermatol 39:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zaenglein AL (2008) Topical retinoids in the treatment of acne vulgaris [review]. Semin Cutan Med Surg 27:177–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhang C, Duvic M (2006) Treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with retinoids. Dermatol Ther 19:264–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of DermatologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology and AllergologyLudwig Maximilian UniversityMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations