Questionnaire Methods in Occupational Skin Disease Epidemiology

  • Päivikki SusitaivalEmail author
Reference work entry


Questionnaire studies are needed to get data on the epidemiology of occupational skin diseases. The results depend solely on good questionnaire design. To achieve this, knowledge of the studied phenomenon, the study population and basic questionnaire design is critical. The use of standardized questionnaire tools for diagnoses of diseases makes comparing the results in different studies possible. A questionnaire tool – Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002) – has been designed for surveys on work-related skin disease and exposures to environmental factors.


Questionnaire design Occupational skin disease Questionnaire tools Hand eczema Atopic dermatitis Respiratory atopy NOSQ-2002 


  1. Bregnhøj A, Søsted H, Menné T, Johansen JD (2011) Validation of self-reporting of hand eczema among Danish hairdressing apprentices. Contact Dermatitis 65:146–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Coenraads PJ, Nater JP, Van der Lende R (1983) Prevalence of eczema and other dermatoses of the hands and arms in the Netherlands. Association with age and occupation. Clin Exp Dermatol 8:495–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coenraads PJ, Nater JP, Jansen HA, Lantinga H (1984) Prevalence of eczema and other dermatoses of the hands and forearms in construction workers in the Netherlands. Clin Exp Dermatol 9:149–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Flyvholm M-A, Susitaival P, Meding B, Kanerva L, Lindberg M, Svensson Å, Ólafsson JH (2002) Nordic occupational skin questionnaire – NOSQ-2002. Nordic questionnaire for surveying work-related skin diseases on hands and forearms and relevant exposures. TemaNord 2002:518. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen. See
  5. Mälkönen T, Jolanki R, Alanko K, Luukkonen R, Aalto-Korte K, Lauerma A, Susitaival P (2009) A 6-month follow-up study of 1048 patients diagnosed with an occupational skin disease. Contact Dermatitis 61:261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Meding B (1990) Epidemiology of hand eczema in an industrial city. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh) 153:1–43Google Scholar
  7. Meding B, Barregård L (2001) Validity of self-reports of hand eczema. Contact Dermatitis 45:99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Meding B, Swanbeck G (1987) Prevalence of hand eczema in an industrial city. Br J Dermatol 116:627–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Nielsen NH, Dirksen A, Madsen F (1993) Can subjects with a positive allergen skin test be selected by a short questionnaire? The Glostrup Allergy Study, Denmark. Allergy 48:319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sala-Sastre N, Herdman M, Navarro L, de la Prada M, Pujol RM, Serra C, Alonso J, Flyvholm M, Giménez-Arnau AM (2009) Principles and methodology for translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002) to Spanish and Catalan. Contact Dermatitis 61(2):109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Smit HA, Coenraads PJ, Lavrijsen APM, Nater JP (1992) Evaluation of a self-administered questionnaire on hand dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 26:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Susitaival P (2006) Chapter 10, Sensitive skin symptoms as risk indicators for hand eczema. In: Berardesca E, Fluhr W, Maibach HI (eds) Sensitive skin syndrome. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 121–128Google Scholar
  13. Susitaival P, Husman L, Horsmanheimo M, Notkola V, Husman K (1994) Prevalence of hand dermatoses among Finnish farmers. Scand J Work Environ Health 20:206–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Susitaival P, Husman L, Hollmén A, Horsmanheimo M (1995) Dermatoses determined in a population of farmers in a questionnaire based clinical study including methodology validation. Scand J Work Environ Health 21:30–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Susitaival P, Kanerva L, Hannuksela M, Jolanki R, Estlander T (1996) Tuohilampi questionnaire for epidemiological studies of contact dermatitis and atopy. People and work. Research reports 10. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  16. Susitaival P, Kirk J, Schenker MB (2001) Self-reported hand dermatitis in California veterinarians. Am J Contact Dermat 12:103–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Susitaival P, Flyvholm MA, Meding B, Kanerva L, Lindberg M, Svensson A, Olafsson JH (2003) Nordic occupational skin questionnaire (NOSQ-2002): a new tool for surveying occupational skin diseases and exposure. Contact Dermatitis 49(2):70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Vermeulen R, Kromhout H, Bruynzeel DP, De Boer EM (2000) Ascertainment of hand dermatitis using a symptom-based questionnaire; applicability in an industrial population. Contact Dermatitis 42:202–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Williams HC, Burney PGJ, Hay RJ et al (1994a) The U.K. working party’s diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis. I. Derivation of a minimum set of discriminators for atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 131:383–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Williams HC, Burney PG, Strachan D, Hay RJ (1994b) The U.K. working party’s diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis. II. Observer variation of clinical diagnosis and signs of atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 131:397–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Williams HC, Burney PGJ, Pembroke AC, Hay RJ (1996) Validation of the U.K. diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis in a population setting. Br J Dermatol 135:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yngveson M, Svensson A, Isacsson A (1997) Evaluation of a self-reported questionnaire on hand dermatosis in secondary school children. Acta Derm Venereol 77(6):455–457PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyNorth Carelia Central HospitalJoensuuFinland

Personalised recommendations