Advertisement

Frictional Trauma/Mechanic Skin Diseases

  • Niels H. BennikeEmail author
  • Klaus E. Andersen
Reference work entry

Abstract

Normal skin can resist mechanical insults to a certain degree. If not counteracted by protective measures, excessive friction or superficial skin injuries may develop into cutaneous disease. Post-traumatic eczema can persist or recur for long periods of time, while preexisting dermatoses can be aggravated by mechanical trauma. If a dynamic relationship between trauma and development of eczema is made probable, it has important medical implications when job related. Only a minor fraction of individuals exposed to repetitive mechanical stimuli such as friction develop physical irritant contact dermatitis, indicating a probable role of genetic predisposition in addition to environmental factors such as temperature and sweat production. Hyperkeratoses, calluses, and lichenification are common clinical manifestations of a frictional eczema which most often involves the hands. Frictional hand dermatitis can be caused by working in various occupations, from office workers to craftsmen such as carpet installers and shoe makers. Time from onset of exposure to development of frictional dermatitis can vary from weeks to years. Post-traumatic eczema following mechanical injury usually occurs within weeks. It may occur in association with an underlying endogenous dermatosis (isomorphic reaction of Koebner’s phenomenon) or occur as an isolated idiopathic reaction. The clinical features of posttraumatic eczema are indistinguishable from other types of hand eczema.

Keywords

Cardboard Computer dermatitis Craftsmen Hyperkeratosis Frictional dermatitis Koebner’s phenomenon Lichenification Mechanic dermatoses Paper Post-traumatic eczema Skin barrier Skin injury Skin trauma 

References

  1. Bennike NH, Johansen JD, Menné T (2016) Friction from paper and cardboard causing occupational dermatitis in non-atopic individuals. Contact Dermatitis 74(5):307–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beukers S, van der Valk PGM (2006) Idiopathic post-traumatic eczema. Contact Dermatitis 54(3):178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carøe TK, Ebbehøj N, Agner T (2014) A survey of exposures related to recognized occupational contact dermatitis in Denmark in 2010. Contact Dermatitis 70(1):56–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Corazza M et al (2016) Modern electronic devices. Dermatitis 27(3):82–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Craecker W, Roskams N, de Beeck R (2008) Occupational skin diseases and dermal exposure in the European Union (EU-25): policy and practice overview. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 6:1–244. Available at: https://osha.europa.eu/en/node/6875/file_viewGoogle Scholar
  6. Elsner P (2007) Skin protection in the prevention of skin diseases. Curr Probl Dermatol 34:1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Fischer T, Rystedt I (1983) Cobalt allergy in hard metal workers. Contact Dermatitis 9(2):115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Greiling TM et al (2014) Posttraumatic eczema: a manifestation of the atopic diathesis? Dermatitis 25(6):376–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mancuso G, Reggiani M, Berdondoni R (1996) Occupational dermatitis in shoemakers. Contact Dermatitis 34:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mathias CG (1988) Post-traumatic eczema. Dermatol Clin 6(1):35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. McMullen E, Gawkrodger DJ (2006) Physical friction is under-recognized as an irritant that can cause or contribute to contact dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 154(1):154–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Meneghini CL (1985) Sensitization in traumatized skin. Am J Ind Med 8(4–5):319–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Menne T (1983) Frictional dermatitis in post-office workers. Contact Dermatitis 9(2):172–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Meulenbelt HEJ et al (2007) Skin problems in lower limb amputees: an overview by case reports. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 21(2):147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Morris-Jones R et al (2002) Dermatitis caused by physical irritants. Br J Dermatol 147(2):270–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pedersen L, Jemec GBE (2006) Mechanical properties and barrier function of healthy human skin. Acta Derm Venereol 86(4):308–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Samitz MH (1985) Repeated mechanical trauma to the skin: occupational aspects. Am J Ind Med 8(4–5):265–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schürer NY, Dickel H (2007) Protection from physical noxae. Curr Probl Dermatol 34:98–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Wahlberg JE (1985) Occupational hyperkeratoses in carpet installers. Am J Ind Med 8(4–5):351–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Watkins SA, Maibach HI (2009) The hardening phenomenon in irritant contact dermatitis: an interpretative update. Contact Dermatitis 60(3):123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Weiss G, Shemer A, Trau H (2002) The Koebner phenomenon: review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 16(3):241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wilkinson DS (1985) Dermatitis from repeated trauma to the skin. Am J Ind Med 8(4–5):307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Allergy Research Centre, Department of Dermatology and AllergyHerlev-Gentofte University HospitalHellerupDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, Odense University HospitalUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark

Personalised recommendations