Specially formulated friction materials for brake blocks were first developed in 1897 by Herbert Frood in Chapel-en-le-Frith, Derbyshire in the UK (Harper 1997). They were produced as a more effective substitute for natural materials, such as wood, metal, leather, and camel hair. They were originally designed for use on horse-drawn quarry wagons but usage spread rapidly to other vehicle types for which braking was needed. The development of the motor car and later the aeroplane extended their use. The friction material is generally fixed to a backing, which is usually steel, being curved in drum brakes and flat in disc brakes. The linings are abrasive on the surface and act as a thermal barrier and must resist wear. The composition of the materials is essentially similar, although there may be variations for friction level, strength, compressibility, density, and noise reduction.
KeywordsAbrasive materials Disc brakes Fibrous reinforcement Friction material
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