Prevention in Health-Care Professionals
Job-related hazards for the development of skin diseases in health care professionals are prolonged wet work, contact to potential allergens as well as infectious agents, and the exposure to ionizing radiation. Most common skin diseases resulting comprise irritant/allergic contact dermatitis, infections, and skin cancer/radiodermatitis.
To avoid irritant contact dermatitis, use protective (barrier) creams and moisturizers.
Infections can be prevented by hand hygiene, including hand washing and/or disinfection, and the use of medical gloves.
Hand disinfection is eudermic and should be the preferred method of hand hygiene.
Medical gloves should protect against microorganisms and chemicals. Gloves used in the medical sector have to achieve at least an acceptance quality level (AQL) of 1.5.
For prevention of skin cancer due to ionizing radiation, a continual dose monitoring, annual medical examinations, and rigorous approach to radiation protection and dose reduction are necessary.
KeywordsPrevention Health-care-professionals Contact dermatitis Infectious diseases Skin cancer
- Aalto-Korte K, Ackermann L, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Välimaa J, Reinikka-Railo H, Leppänen E, Jolanki R (2007) 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one in disposable polyvinyl chloride gloves for medical use. Contact Dermatitis 57:365–370Google Scholar
- American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM (2009a) F1383 standard test method for resistance of protective clothing materials to permeation by liquids or gases under conditions of intermittant contact. In: ASTM annual book of ASTM standards, vol 11.03. http://www.astm.org
- American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM (2009b) F739 standard test method for resistance of protective clothing materials to permeation by liquids or gases under conditions of continous contact. In: ASTM annual book of ASTM standards, vol 11.03. http://www.astm.org
- American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM (2009c) F903 standard test method for resistance of protective clothing materials to penetration by liquids. In: ASTM annual book of ASTM standards, vol 11.03. http://www.astm.org
- CEN – EN 374 I-III (2003) Protective gloves against chemicals and micro-organisms. Part I: terminology and performance requirements, part II: determination of resistance for penetration, part III: determination of resistance to permeation by chemicals. Comité Européen de Normalisation, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
- CEN – EN 455 I-III (2002) Medical gloves for single use. Part I: requirements for testing for freedom from holes, part II: requirements and testing for physical properties, part III: requirements and testing for biological evaluation. Comité Européen de Normalisation, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
- Council Directive 76/768/EEC of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to cosmetic products. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31976L0768:EN:HTML. Accessed 21 Dec 2010
- European Commission (1999) Scientific committee on cosmetic products and non-food products intended for consumers. Opinion concerning fragrance allergy in consumers. http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/sccp/documents/out98_en.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2010
- European Commission: Directive 89/686/EEC for Personal protective equipment (PPE) (2016) Protective gloves against dangerous chemicals and micro-organisms – part 1: terminology and performance requirements for chemical risks. EN ISO 374-1:2016. https://ec.europa.eu/growth/single-market/european-standards/harmonised-standards/personal-protective-equipment_de. Accessed 10 June 2017
- Hamann CP, Rodgers PA, Sullivan KM (2005) Management of natural rubber glove sensitivity. In: Boman A, Estlander T, Wahlberg JE, Maibach HI (eds) Protective gloves for occupational use. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 155–186Google Scholar
- Liss GM, Sussman GL, Deal K, Brown S, Cividino M, Siu S, Beezhold DH, Smith G, Swanson MC, Yunginger J, Douglas A, Holness DL, Lebert P, Keith P, Wasserman S, Turjanmaa K (1997) Latex allergy: epidemiological study of 1351 hospital workers. Occup Environ Med 54:335–342PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Semmelweis I (1988) The etiolology, concept and prophylaxis of childbed fever. In: Buck C, Llopis A, Najera E, Terris M (eds) The challenge of epidemiology- issues and selected readings. PAHO Scientific, Washington, DC, pp 46–59Google Scholar
- Stutz N, Becker D, Jappe U, John SM, Ladwig A, Spornraft-Ragaller P, Uter W, Löffler H (2009) Nurses’ perception of the benefits and adverse effects of hand disinfection: alcohol-based hand rubs versus hygienic handwashing – a multicentre questionnaire study with additional patch testing by the German contact dermatitis research group (DKG). Br J Dermatol 160:565–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tanner J, Parkinson H (2006) Double gloving to reduce surgical cross-infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD003087Google Scholar
- Warshaw EM, Schram SE, Maibach HI, Belsito DV, Marks JG Jr, Fowler JF Jr, Rietschel RL, Taylor JS, Mathias CG, DeLeo VA, Zug KA, Sasseville D, Storrs FJ, Pratt MD (2008) Occupation-related contact dermatitis in North American health care workers referred for patch testing: cross-sectional data, 1998 to 2004. Dermatitis 19:261–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar