Bio-based Nanoemulsions: An Eco-safe Approach Towards the Eco-toxicity Problem

  • Prabhakar Mishra
  • A. P. B. Balaji
  • Amitava Mukherjee
  • Natarajan ChandrasekaranEmail author
Reference work entry


The current eco-toxicological problem occurring world-wide as a result of the heavy usage of hazardous engineered nanomaterials has driven the invention or use of materials that are eco-safe. Nanomaterials prepared with an eco-safe approach provide a remedy for this problem. These engineered nanoparticles have a very small size range, which makes them both promising and challenging – a “two-edged sword.” These nanoparticles are useful in product development, which is applicable in several fields. The properties of these nano-sized particles that make them a useful tool (e.g., shape, size, high reactivity), simultaneously make them a cause for concern in nature, resulting in ill-effects towards the environment. Bio-based nanoparticles are a better option with potent application properties and lower eco-toxicity influence. Bio-based nanoemulsions are an example of a bio-based nanomaterial. Nanoemulsions comprise an oil and aqueous phase mixed with a surfactant. A nanoemulsion can include nanoparticles ranging in size between 20 and 200 nm. The nanometric size of these emulsions allows for a wide range of applications in, for example, the pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics, and agriculture. Their bio-based approach to formulation makes them economical and eco-friendly.


Eco-toxicity Engineered nanoparticles Nanoemulsion 


  1. 1.
    Mason T, Wilking J, Meleson K, Chang C, Graves S (2006) Nanoemulsions: formation, structure, and physical properties. J Phys Condens Matter 18:R635Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Delmas T, Piraux H, Couffin A-C, Texier I, Vinet F, Poulin P, Cates ME, Bibette J (2011) How to prepare and stabilize very small nanoemulsions. Langmuir 27:1683–1692Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    McClements DJ (2011) Edible nanoemulsions: fabrication, properties, and functional performance. Soft Matter 7:2297–2316Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    McClements DJ, Rao J (2011) Food-grade nanoemulsions: formulation, fabrication, properties, performance, biological fate, and potential toxicity. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 51:285–330Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Qian C, Decker EA, Xiao H, McClements DJ (2012) Nanoemulsion delivery systems: influence of carrier oil on β-carotene bioaccessibility. Food Chem 135:1440–1447Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rao J, McClements DJ (2011) Formation of flavor oil microemulsions, nanoemulsions and emulsions: influence of composition and preparation method. J Agric Food Chem 59:5026–5035Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Troncoso E, Aguilera JM, McClements DJ (2012) Fabrication, characterization and lipase digestibility of food-grade nanoemulsions. Food Hydrocoll 27:355–363Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fryd MM, Mason TG (2012) Advanced nanoemulsions. Annu Rev Phys Chem 63:493–518Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Solans C, Izquierdo P, Nolla J, Azemar N, Garcia-Celma M (2005) Nano-emulsions. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 10:102–110Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tadros T, Izquierdo P, Esquena J, Solans C (2004) Formation and stability of nano-emulsions. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 108:303–318Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Izquierdo P, Esquena J, Tadros TF, Dederen C, Garcia M, Azemar N, Solans C (2002) Formation and stability of nano-emulsions prepared using the phase inversion temperature method. Langmuir 18:26–30Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Forgiarini A, Esquena J, Gonzalez C, Solans C (2001) Formation of nano-emulsions by low-energy emulsification methods at constant temperature. Langmuir 17:2076–2083Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anton N, Vandamme TF (2011) Nano-emulsions and micro-emulsions: clarifications of the critical differences. Pharm Res 28:978–985Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    McClements DJ (2012) Nanoemulsions versus microemulsions: terminology, differences, and similarities. Soft Matter 8:1719–1729Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alves P, Pohlmann A, Guterres S (2005) Semisolid topical formulations containing nimesulide-loaded nanocapsules, nanospheres or nanoemulsion: development and rheological characterization. Pharmazie 60:900–904Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baboota S, Shakeel F, Ahuja A, Ali J, Shafiq S (2007) Design, development and evaluation of novel nanoemulsion formulations for transdermal potential of celecoxib. Acta Pharma 57:315–332Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dixit N, Kohli K, Baboota S (2008) Nanoemulsion system for the transdermal delivery of a poorly soluble cardiovascular drug. PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 62:46–55Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kong M, Chen XG, Kweon DK, Park HJ (2011) Investigations on skin permeation of hyaluronic acid based nanoemulsion as transdermal carrier. Carbohydr Polym 86:837–843Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shakeel F, Baboota S, Ahuja A, Ali J, Aqil M, Shafiq S (2007) Nanoemulsions as vehicles for transdermal delivery of aceclofenac. AAPS PharmSciTech 8:191–199Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gupta A, Eral HB, Hatton TA, Doyle PS (2016) Nanoemulsions: formation, properties and applications. Soft Matter 12:2826–2841Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ammar H, Salama H, Ghorab M, Mahmoud A (2010) Development of dorzolamide hydrochloride in situ gel nanoemulsion for ocular delivery. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 36:1330–1339Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim BS, Won M, Yang Lee KM, Kim CS (2008) In vitro permeation studies of nanoemulsions containing ketoprofen as a model drug. Drug Deliv 15:465–469Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Klang V, Matsko N, Zimmermann A-M, Vojnikovic E, Valenta C (2010) Enhancement of stability and skin permeation by sucrose stearate and cyclodextrins in progesterone nanoemulsions. Int J Pharm 393:153–161Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tagne J-B, Kakumanu S, Nicolosi RJ (2008) Nanoemulsion preparations of the anticancer drug dacarbazine significantly increase its efficacy in a xenograft mouse melanoma model. Mol Pharm 5:1055–1063Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yilmaz E, Borchert H-H (2006) Effect of lipid-containing, positively charged nanoemulsions on skin hydration, elasticity and erythema – an in vivo study. Int J Pharm 307:232–238Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhou H, Yue Y, Liu G, Li Y, Zhang J, Gong Q, Yan Z, Duan M (2010) Preparation and characterization of a lecithin nanoemulsion as a topical delivery system. Nanoscale Res Lett 5:22Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Harrison JW, Svec TA (1998) The beginning of the end of the antibiotic era? Part II. Proposed solutions to antibiotic abuse. Quintessence Int 29:223–229Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Neuhauser MM, Weinstein RA, Rydman R, Danziger LH, Karam G, Quinn JP (2003) Antibiotic resistance among gram-negative bacilli in US intensive care units: implications for fluoroquinolone use. J Am Med Assoc 289:885–888Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Froom J, Culpepper L, Jacobs M, DeMelker RA, Green LA, van Buchem L, Grob P, Heeren T (1997) Antimicrobials for acute otitis media? A review from the International Primary Care Network. Br Med J 315:98–102Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Agnihotri A (1999) Pesticide: safety evaluation and monitoring. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Division of Agricultural Chemicals, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bhatnagar V (2001) Pesticides pollution: trends and perspectives. ICMR Bull 31:87–88Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Simon-Sylvestre G, Fournier J-C (1980) Effects of pesticides on the soil microflora. Adv Agron 31:1–92Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    WHO (2008) World malaria report 2008. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Diabate A, Baldet T, Chandre F, Akoobeto M, Guiguemde TR et al (2002) The role of agricultural use of insecticides in resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Burkina Faso. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:617–622Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Czeher C, Labbo R, Arzika I, Duchemin JB (2008) Evidence of increasing LeuPhe knockdown resistance mutation in Anopheles gambiae from Niger following a nationwide long-lasting insecticide-treated nets implementation. Malar J 7:189Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vulule JM, Beach RF, Atieli FK, Roberts JM, Mount DL (1994) Reduced susceptibility of Anopheles-gambiae to permethrin associated with the use of permethrin-impregnated bednets and curtains in Kenya. Med Vet Entomol 8:71–75Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Donnelly MJ, Corbel V, Weetman D, Wilding CS, Williamson MS et al (2009) Does kdr genotype predict insecticide-resistance phenotype in mosquitoes? Trends Parasitol 25:213–219Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fontenille D, Lochouarn L, Diagne N, Sokhna C, Lemasson JJ (1997) High annual and seasonal variations in malaria transmission by anophelines and vector species composition in Dielmo, a holoendemic area in Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56:247–253Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Antonio-Nkondjio C, Fossog BT, Ndo C, Djantio BM, Togouet SZ (2011) Anopheles gambiae distribution and insecticide resistance in the cities of Douala and Yaounde (Cameroon): influence of urban agriculture and pollution. Malar J 10:154Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Balkew M, Ibrahim M, Koekemoer LL, Brooke BD, Engers H (2010) Insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) from villages in central, northern and south west Ethiopia and detection of kdr mutation. Parasit Vectors 3:40Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hunt RH, Fuseini G, Knowles S, Stiles-Ocran J, Verster R (2011) Insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes at four localities in Ghana, West Africa. Parasit Vectors 4:107Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vezenegho SB, Brooke BD, Hunt RH, Coetzee M, Koekemoer LL (2009) Malaria vector composition and insecticide susceptibility status in Guinea Conakry, West Africa. Med Vet Entomol 23:326–334Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mishra P, Jerobin J, Thomas J, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2014) Study on antimicrobial potential of neem oil nanoemulsion against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Labeo rohita. Biotechnol Appl Bioc 61:611–619Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Anjali C, Sharma Y, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2012) Neem oil (Azadirachta indica) nanoemulsion – a potent larvicidal agent against Culex quinquefasciatus. Pest Manag Sci 68:158–163Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kumar RS, Shiny P, Anjali C, Jerobin J, Goshen KM, Magdassi S, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2013) Distinctive effects of nano-sized permethrin in the environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:2593–2602Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schiffelers R, Storm G, Bakker-Woudenberg I (2001) Liposome-encapsulated aminoglycosides in pre-clinical and clinical studies. J Antimicrob Chemother 48:333–344Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Onyeji C, Nightingale C, Marangos M (1994) Enhanced killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in human macrophages by liposome-entrapped vancomycin and teicoplanin. Infection 22:338–342Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sanna V, Gavini E, Cossu M, Rassu G, Giunchedi P (2007) Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) as carriers for the topical delivery of econazole nitrate: in-vitro characterization, ex-vivo and in-vivo studies. J Pharm Pharmacol 59:1057–1064Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jain D, Banerjee R (2008) Comparison of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride-loaded protein, lipid, and chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 86:105–112Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Allaker RP, Ren G (2008) Potential impact of nanotechnology on the control of infectious diseases. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:1–2Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Taylor PW, Stapleton PD, Luzio JP (2002) New ways to treat bacterial infections. Drug Discov Today 7:1086–1091Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Abeylath SC, Turos E (2008) Drug delivery approaches to overcome bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 5:931–949Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Myc A, Kukowska-Latallo JF, Bielinska AU, Cao P, Myc PP, Janczak K, Sturm TR, Grabinski MS, Landers JJ, Young KS (2003) Development of immune response that protects mice from viral pneumonitis after a single intranasal immunization with influenza A virus and nanoemulsion. Vaccine 21:3801–3814Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rai M, Yadav A, Gade A (2009) Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnol Adv 27:76–83Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Li Q, Mahendra S, Lyon DY, Brunet L, Liga MV, Li D, Alvarez PJ (2008) Antimicrobial nanomaterials for water disinfection and microbial control: potential applications and implications. Water Res 42:4591–4602Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Weir E, Lawlor A, Whelan A, Regan F (2008) The use of nanoparticles in anti-microbial materials and their characterization. Analyst 133:835–845Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mühling M, Bradford A, Readman JW, Somerfield PJ, Handy RD (2009) An investigation into the effects of silver nanoparticles on antibiotic resistance of naturally occurring bacteria in an estuarine sediment. Mar Environ Res 68:278–283Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kim JS, Kuk E, Yu KN, Kim JS, Park SJ, Lee HJ, Kim SH, Park YK, Park YH, Hwang CY, Kim YK, Lee YS, Jeong DH, Cho MH (2007) Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 3:95–101Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Maness P-C, Smolinski S, Blake DM, Huang Z, Wolfrum EJ, Jacoby WA (1999) Bactericidal activity of photocatalytic TiO2 reaction: toward an understanding of its killing mechanism. Applied Environ Microbiol 65:4094–4098Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pal S, Tak YK, Song JM (2007) Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:1712–1720Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rabea EI, Badawy ME-T, Stevens CV, Smagghe G, Steurbaut W (2003) Chitosan as antimicrobial agent: applications and mode of action. Biomacromolecules 4:1457–1465Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Balaji D, Basavaraja S, Deshpande R, Mahesh DB, Prabhakar B, Venkataraman A (2009) Extracellular biosynthesis of functionalized silver nanoparticles by strains of Cladosporium cladosporioides fungus. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 68:88–92Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Basavaraja S, Balaji S, Lagashetty A, Rajasab A, Venkataraman A (2008) Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum. Mater Res Bull 43:1164–1117Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Holmes JD, Smith PR, Evans-Gowing R, Richardson DJ, Russell DA, Sodeau JR (1995) Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of the extracellular cadmium sulfide crystallites of Klebsiella aerogenes. Arch Microbiol 163:143–147Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nanda A, Saravanan M (2009) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Staphylococcus aureus and its antimicrobial activity against MRSA and MRSE. Nanomedicine 5:452–456Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Saravanan M, Nanda A (2010) Extracellular synthesis of silver bionanoparticles from Aspergillus clavatus and its antimicrobial activity against MRSA and MRSE. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 77:214–218Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mansour HM, Rhee Y-S, Wu X (2009) Nanomedicine in pulmonary delivery. Int J Nanomedicine 4:299Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sosnik A, Carcaboso ÁM, Glisoni RJ, Moretton MA, Chiappetta DA (2010) New old challenges in tuberculosis: potentially effective nanotechnologies in drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 62:547–559Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Cao Y, Sheng J (2010) Microstructure of microemulsion in MEEKC. Electrophoresis 31:672–678Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lawrence MJ, Rees GD (2000) Microemulsion-based media as novel drug delivery systems. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 45:89–121Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    LiPuma JJ, Rathinavelu S, Foster BK, Keoleian JC, Makidon PE, Kalikin LM, Baker JR (2009) In vitro activities of a novel nanoemulsion against Burkholderia and other multidrug-resistant cystic fibrosis-associated bacterial species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:249–255Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Aurel Y, Jan G, Paul VL, Thijs W, Stephan WFM, Van H, Tom AM, Beumer TA, Robert R, Wijn RR, Rene G, Heideman RG, Vinod S, Johannes S, Kanger JS (2007) Fast ultrasensitive virus detection using a young interferometer sensor. Nano Lett 7:394–397Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ponarulselvam S, Panneerselvam C, Murugan K, Aarthi A, Kalimuthu K, Thangamani S (2012) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their anti-plasmodial activities. Asian-Pacif J Trop Biomed 2:574–580Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Priyadarshini AK, Murugan K, Panneerselvam C, Ponarulselvam S, Hwang JS, Nicoletti M (2012) Biolarvicidal and pupicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Euphorbia hirta against Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 111:997–100Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shankar S, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2004) Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag and bimetallic Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:496–502Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Marimuthu S, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Santhoshkumar T, Kirthi AV, Jayaseelan C, Bagavan A, Zahir AA, Elango G, Kamaraj C (2011) Evaluation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against parasites. Parasitol Res 10:2212–2224Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Panneerselvam C, Murugan K, Kovendan K, Mahesh Kumar P (2012) Mosquito larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activity of Artemisia nilagirica (Family: Compositae) against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Parasitol Res 111:2241–2251Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Santhoshkumar T, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Bagavan A, Jayaseelan C, Zahir AA, Elango G, Kamaraj C (2011) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors. Parasitol Res 108:693–702Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dinesh D, Murugan K, Madhiyazhagan P, Panneerselvam C, Nicoletti M, Jiang W, Benelli G, Chandramohan B, Suresh U (2015) Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi? Parasitol Res 114:1519–1529Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Benelli G (2015) Plant-synthesized nanoparticles: an eco-friendly tool against mosquito vectors? In: Mehlhorn H (ed) Nanoparticles in the fight against parasites – parasitology research monographs. Springer International Publishing, Cham. ISSN: 2192-3671Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Murugan K, Benelli G, Suganya A, Dinesh D, Panneerselvam C, Nicoletti M, Hwang JS, Mahesh Kumar P, Subramaniam J, Suresh U (2015) Toxicity of seaweed-synthesized silver nanoparticles against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and its impact on predation efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus. Parasitol Res 14:2243–2253Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Al-Adham I, Al-Hmoud N, Khalil E, Kierans M, Collier PJ (2003) Microemulsions are highly effective anti-biofilm agents. Lett Appl Microbiol 36:97–100Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Al-Adham I, Khalil E, Al-Hmoud N, Kierans M, Collier P (2000) Microemulsions are membrane-active, antimicrobial, self-preserving systems. J Appl Microbiol 89:32–39Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hamouda T, Baker J (2000) Antimicrobial mechanism of action of surfactant lipid preparations in enteric Gram-negative bacilli. J Appl Microbiol 89:397–403Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hamouda T, Hayes MM, Cao Z, Tonda R, Johnson K, Wright DC, Brisker J, Baker JR Jr (1999) A novel surfactant nanoemulsion with broad-spectrum sporicidal activity against Bacillus species. J Infect Dis 180:1939–1949Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Makidon PE, Bielinska AU, Nigavekar SS, Janczak KW, Knowlton J, Scott AJ, Mank N, Cao Z, Rathinavelu S, Beer MR (2008) Pre-clinical evaluation of a novel nanoemulsion-based hepatitis B mucosal vaccine. PLoS One 3:e2954Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Dibrov P, Dzioba J, Gosink KK, Häse CC (2002) Chemiosmotic mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag+ in Vibrio cholerae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2668–2670Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bielinska AU, Janczak KW, Landers JJ, Makidon P, Sower LE, Peterson JW, Baker JR (2007) Mucosal immunization with a novel nanoemulsion-based recombinant anthrax protective antigen vaccine protects against Bacillus anthracis spore challenge. Infect Immun 75:4020–4029Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lian T, Ho RJ (2001) Trends and developments in liposome drug delivery systems. J Pharm Sci 90:667–680Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Torchilin VP (2005) Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers. Nat Rev Drug Discov 4:145–160Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zhang L, Pornpattananangkul D, Hu C-M, Huang C-M (2010) Development of nanoparticles for antimicrobial drug delivery. Curr Med Chem 17:585–594Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lasic DD (1998) Novel applications of liposomes. Trends Biotechnol 16:307–321Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Maruyama K, Kennel SJ, Huang L (1990) Lipid composition is important for highly efficient target binding and retention of immunoliposomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci 87:5744–5748Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Allen TM, Hansen C, Rutledge J (1989) Liposomes with prolonged circulation times: factors affecting uptake by reticuloendothelial and other tissues. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 981:27–35Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bakker-Woudenberg IA (2002) Long-circulating sterically stabilized liposomes as carriers of agents for treatment of infection or for imaging infectious foci. Int J Antimicrob Agents 19:299–311Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Moonis M, Ahmad I, Bachhawat BK (1994) Effect of elimination of phagocytic cells by liposomal dichloromethylene diphosphonate on aspergillosis virulence and toxicity of liposomal amphotericin B in mice. J Antimicrob Chemother 33:571–583Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Omri A, Suntres ZE, Shek PN (2002) Enhanced activity of liposomal polymyxin B against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a rat model of lung infection. Biochem Pharmacol 64:1407–1413Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Pinto-Alphandary H, Andremont A, Couvreur P (2000) Targeted delivery of antibiotics using liposomes and nanoparticles: research and applications. Int J Antimicrob Agents 13:155–168Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gangadharam PR, Ashtekar DA, Ghori N, Goldstein JA, Debs RJ, Düzgünes N (1991) Chemotherapeutic potential of free and liposome encapsulated streptomycin against experimental Mycobacterium avium complex infections in beige mice. J Antimicrob Chemother 28:425–435Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bakker-Woudenberg IA, Ten Kate M, Stearne-Cullen L, Woodle M (1995) Efficacy of gentamicin or ceftazidime entrapped in liposomes with prolonged blood circulation and enhanced localization in Klebsiella pneumoniae-infected lung tissue. J Infect Dis 171:938–947Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    MuÈller RH, MaÈder K, Gohla S (2000) Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for controlled drug delivery – a review of the state of the art. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 50:161–177Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wissing SA, Müller RH (2003) Cosmetic applications for solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Int J Pharm 254:65–68Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pandey R, Khuller G (2005) Solid lipid particle-based inhalable sustained drug delivery system against experimental tuberculosis. Tuberculosis 85:227–234Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bargoni A, Cavalli R, Zara GP, Fundarò A, Caputo O, Gasco MR (2001) Transmucosal transport of tobramycin incorporated in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) after duodenal administration to rats. Part II – tissue distribution. Pharmacol Res 43:497–502Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Souto E, Müller R (2008) Cosmetic features and applications of lipid nanoparticles (SLN®, NLC®). Int J Cosmet Sci 30:157–165Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Souto E, Wissing S, Barbosa C, Müller R (2004) Development of a controlled release formulation based on SLN and NLC for topical clotrimazole delivery. Int J Pharm 278:71–77Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gupta AK, Cooper EA (2008) Update in antifungal therapy of dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia 166:353–367Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Walstra P (1996) Emulsion stability. In: Becher P (ed) Encyclopedia of emulsion technology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1–62Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Landfester K, Eisenblatter J, Rothe R (2004) Preparation of polymerizable miniemulsions by ultrasonication. JCT Res 1:65–68Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Floury J, Desrumaux A, Axelos MAV, Legrand J (2003) Effect of high pressure homogenisation on methycellulose as food emulsifier. J Food Eng 58:227–238Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Veerakumar K, Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Muthukumaran U (2014) Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 113:1775–1785Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Destrée C, Nagy J (2006) Mechanism of formation of inorganic and organic nanoparticles from microemulsions. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 123:353–367Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Gasco MR, Priano L, Zara GP (2009) Solid lipid nanoparticles and microemulsions for drug delivery: the CNS. Prog Brain Res 180:181–192Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Margulis-Goshen K, Magdassi S (2012) Organic nanoparticles from microemulsions: formation and applications. Curr Opin Colloid Interf Sci 17:290–296Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sugumar S, Clarke S, Nirmala M, Tyagi B, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2014) Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Bull Entomol Res 104:393–402Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Anjali C, Khan SS, Margulis-Goshen K, Magdassi S, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2010) Formulation of water-dispersible nanopermethrin for larvicidal applications. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:1932–1936Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Balaji A, Mishra P, Kumar RS, Ashu A, Margulis K, Magdassi S, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2015) The environmentally benign form of pesticide in hydrodispersive nanometric form with improved efficacy against adult mosquitoes at low exposure concentrations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 95:734–739Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Mishra P, Balaji A, Dhal P, Kumar RS, Magdassi S, Margulis K, Tyagi B, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2017) Stability of nano-sized permethrin in its colloidal state and its effect on the physiological and biochemical profile of Culex tritaeniorhynchus larvae. Bull Entomol Res 107(5):1–13Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Baun A, Hartmann NB, Grieger K, Kusk KO (2008) Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing. Ecotoxicology 17:387–395Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Fabrega J, Luoma SN, Tyler CR, Galloway TS, Lead JR (2011) Silver nanoparticles: behaviour and effects in the aquatic environment. Environ Int 37:517–531Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Oberdorster E, Zhu S, Michelle Blickley T, McClellan-Green P, Haasch ML (2006) Ecotoxicology of carbon-based engineered nanoparticles: effects of fullerene (C60) on aquatic organisms. Carbon 44:1112–1120Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Park J, Kim S, Yoo J, Lee JS, Park JW, Jung J (2014) Effect of salinity on acute copper and zinc toxicity to Tigriopus japonicus: the difference between metal ions and nanoparticles. Mar Pollut Bull 85:526–531Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Patil CD, Borase HP, Patil SV, Salunkhe RB, Salunke BK (2012b) Larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Pergularia daemia plant latex against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi and non-target fish Poecillia reticulata. Parasitol Res 111:555–562Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Patil CD, Patil SV, Borase HP, Salunke BK, Salunkhe RB (2012a) Larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Plumeria rubra plant latex against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Parasitol Res 110:1815–1822Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Subarani S, Sabhanayakam S, Kamaraj C (2013) Studies on the impact of bio synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in relation to malaria and filariasis vector control against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus say (Diptera:Culicidae). Parasitol Res 112:487–499Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Haldar KM, Haldar B, Chandra G (2013) Fabrication, characterization andmosquito larvicidal bioassay ofsilver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous fruit extract of putranjiva, Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Parasitol Res 112:1451–1459Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Mishra P, Balaji A, Swathy J, Paari AL, Kezhiah M, Tyagi B, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2016) Stability assessment of hydro dispersive nanometric permethrin and its biosafety study towards the beneficial bacterial isolate from paddy rhizome. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:24970–24982Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ghosh V, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2013a) Ultrasonic emulsification of food-grade nanoemulsion formulation and evaluation of its bactericidal activity. Ultrason Sonochem 20:338–344Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ghosh V, Saranya S, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2013b) Cinnamon oil nanoemulsion formulation by ultrasonic emulsification: investigation of its bactericidal activity. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 13:114–122Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Mou D, Chen H, Du D, Mao C, Wan J, Xu H, Yang X (2008) Hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system for topical delivery of lipophilic drugs. Int J Pharm 353:270–276Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ostertag F, Weiss J, McClements DJ (2012) Low-energy formation of edible nanoemulsions: factors influencing droplet size produced by emulsion phase inversion. J Colloid Interface Sci 388:95–102Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sugumar S, Nirmala J, Ghosh V, Anjali H, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2013) Bio-based nanoemulsion formulation, characterization and antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens. J Basic Microbiol 53:677–685Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wang L, Li X, Zhang G, Dong J, Eastoe J (2007) Oil-in-water nanoemulsions for pesticide formulations. J Colloid Interface Sci 314:230–235Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    WHO (2007) Insecticide-treated mosquito nets: a WHO position statement. Global malaria programme. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Agnihotri AG (1999) Pesticide: safety evaluation and monitoring. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Division of Agricultural ChemicalsGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Gupta A, Eral HB, Hatton TA, Doyle PS (2016) Nanoemulsions: formation, properties and applications. Soft Matter 12(11):2826–2841Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Vallaeys T (1997) Pesticides: microbial degradation and effects on microorganisms. Modern soil microbiologyGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Aregawi M, Cibulskis RE, Otten M, Williams R (2009) World malaria report 2009. World health organizationGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Zaim M, Aitio A, Nakashima N (2000) Safety of pyrethroid-treated mosquito nets. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 14(1):1–5Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Amerasan D, Nataraj T, Murugan K, Madhiyazhagan P, Panneerselvam C, Nicoletti M, Benelli G (2016) Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Metarhizium anisopliae against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). J Pest Sci 89(1):249–256Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Panneerselvam C, Murugan K, Kovendan K, Mahesh Kumar P, Subramaniam J (2013) Mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Family: Euphorbiaceae) and Bacillus sphaericus against Anopheles stephensi Liston. (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 6(2):102–109Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Suresh U, Murugan K, Benelli G, Nicoletti M, Barnard DR, Panneerselvam C, Mahesh Kumar P, Subramaniam J, Dinesh D, Chandramohan B (2015) Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 114(4):1551–1562Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Fielding RM, Lewis RO, Moon-McDermott L (1998) Altered tissue distribution and elimination of amikacin encapsulated in unilamellar, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome®). Pharmaceutical research 15(11):1775–1781Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Florentina MP (2004) Microemulsion polymerization. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology 25(1):1–16Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Mishra P, Samuel MK, Reddy R, Tyagi BK, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2018) Environmentally benign nanometric neem-laced urea emulsion for controlling mosquito population in environment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(3):2211–2230Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prabhakar Mishra
    • 1
  • A. P. B. Balaji
    • 1
  • Amitava Mukherjee
    • 1
  • Natarajan Chandrasekaran
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre for NanobiotechnologyVIT UniversityVelloreIndia

Personalised recommendations