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New Carbon Nanomaterials for Water Purification from Heavy Metals

  • Alexander E. BurakovEmail author
  • Irina V. Burakova
  • Evgeny V. Galunin
  • Anastasia E. Kucherova
Reference work entry

Abstract

Nowadays, the problem of wastewater contamination with toxic heavy metal ions is rather acute. In this regard, there is a need for advanced approaches to wastewater treatment. (Ad)sorption appears to be one of the most effective techniques for removing heavy metal ions from aquatic environments. This process is flexible in design and operation and allows for producing high-quality treated wastewater effluents. The efficiency of sorbents depends on the following parameters: medium pH, temperature, sorbate initial concentration, sorbent dose, contact time, and stirring speed. Taking into account the aforementioned, the chapter presents a review on extracting heavy metals from different aqueous solutions using various sorbent materials – conventional (activated carbons, zeolites, clays, biosorbents, industrial by-products, etc.) and, particularly, nanostructured (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene oxide). The latter can be employed both in their original and functionalized forms, thereby resulting in increased maximum sorption capacity for the majority of heavy metal ions and shorter time for achieving equilibrium in sorption systems compared to the conventional materials. Besides, the nanomodification of the commonly used sorbents to improve their sorption properties is considered herein. This process can be carried out, for instance, via catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons employing catalysts obtained via the sol-gel and thermal decomposition methods. Finally, a special focus is made on the perspectives of further wider applications of nanostructured materials (especially, carbon nanotudes, graphene, and graphene oxide) as heavy metal sorbents in wastewater treatment.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation under State Assignment No. 16.1384.2017/PCh.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander E. Burakov
    • 1
    Email author
  • Irina V. Burakova
    • 1
  • Evgeny V. Galunin
    • 1
  • Anastasia E. Kucherova
    • 1
  1. 1.Technology and Methods of Nanoproducts ManufacturingTambov State Technical UniversityTambovRussia

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