Advertisement

Principles for Evaluations of Healthiness of New Materials

  • Emina K. PetrovićEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

During the twentieth century, many new human-made materials have been developed, often leading to only subsequent understanding of the damaging effects these have on human and environmental health. This chapter traces the key patterns in historical and recent recognitions of harmfulness of human-made substances used in building materials. It uses the history of the past recognition to propose a need for insisting on an improvement in the way human and environmental health are considered when developing new materials including ecomaterials.

References

  1. 1.
    Afshari A, Gunnarsen L, Clausen PA, Hansen V (2004) Emission of phthalates from PVC and other materials. Indoor Air 14:120–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andersen I, Gyntelberg F (2011) Modern indoor climate research in Denmark from 1962 to the early 1990s: an eyewitness report. Indoor Air 21:182–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Armstrong L, Wordsworth A, Dauncey G (2007) Cancer: 101 solutions to a preventable epidemic. New Society Publishers, Gabriola IslandGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    ATSDR (The United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) (2017) Toxic substances portal. Retrieved from www.atsdr.cdc.gov. Accessed Sep 2017
  5. 5.
    Binetti R, Costamanga FM, Marcello I (2008) Exponential growth of new chemicals and evolution of information relevant to risk control. Ann Ist Super Sanità 44(1):13–15Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brown MJ, Margolis S (2012) Lead in drinking water and human blood lead levels in the United States. MMWR Suppl 61(4):1–9Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carson R (1962) Silent spring. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    CAS (American Chemical Society) (2017) Retrieved from www.cas.org. Accessed Aug 2017
  9. 9.
    Checoway H, Boffetta P, Mundt DJ, Mundt KA (2012) Critical review and synthesis of the epidemiologic evidence on formaldehyde exposure and risk of leukaemia and other lymphohematopoietic malignancies. Cancer Causes Control 23:1747–1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Christensen CH, Hansen JR, Madsen CC, Taarning E, Egeblad K (2008) The renewable chemicals industry. ChemSusChem 1(4):283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Delgado-Saborit JM, Aquilina NJ, Meddings C, Baker S, Harrison RM (2011) Relationship of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds to home, work and fixed site outdoor concentrations. Sci Total Environ 409:478–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Department of Labour (NZ) (2006) Asbestos Exposure in New Zealand 1992 to 2005. Department of Labour, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Donaldson K, Poland CA (2012) Inhaled nanoparticles and lung cancer – what we can learn from conventional particle toxicology. Swiss Med Week 142:w13547Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    ECHA (European Chemicals Agency) (2017) Retrieved from https://echa.europa.eu/. Accessed Mar 2017
  15. 15.
    ECVM (European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers) (2016) Lead stabilisers. Retrieved from www.pvc.org. Accessed Oct 2016
  16. 16.
    Environmental Protection Agency (US) (EPA) (2017) Retrieved from www.epa.gov. Accessed Aug 2017
  17. 17.
    Ewers L, Clark CS, Peng H, Roda SM, Menrath B, Lind C, Succop P (2011) Lead levels in new residential enamel paints in Taipei, Taiwan and comparison with those in mainland China. Environ Res 111:757–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gevao B, Al-Ghadban AN, Bahloul M, Uddin S, Zafar J (2012) Phthalates in indoor dust in Kuwait: implications for non-dietary human exposure. Indoor Air 23(2):126–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Holmgren T, Persson L, Andersson PL, Haglund P (2012) A generic emission model to predict release of organic substances from materials in consumer goods. Sci Total Environ 437:306–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) (2006) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: monograph 88. Retrieved from http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php. Accessed Sep 2016
  21. 21.
    IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) (2012) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: monograph 100F. Retrieved from http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php. Accessed Sep 2016
  22. 22.
    IHS Chemical (2015) Chemical economic handbook: IHS Chemical: Formaldehyde. Retrieved from www.ihs.com. Accessed Aug 2016
  23. 23.
    International Living Future Institute (2017) The red list. Retrieved from living-future.org. Accessed Sep 2017
  24. 24.
    Jakubowski M (2011) Low-level environmental lead exposure and intellectual impairment in children – the current concepts of risk assessment. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 24(1):1–7MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jovanović B (2014) Critical review of public health regulations of titanium dioxide, a human food additive. Int Environ Assess Manage 11(1):10–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim K-H, Ara Jahan S, Lee J-T (2011) Exposure to formaldehyde and its potential human health hazards. J Environ Sci Health C 29:277–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lappas CM (2015) The immunomodulatory effects of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles. Food Chem Toxicol 85:78–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Leah A (2017) The Bullitt Center: a ‘Living building. In: Petrović EK, Vale B, Pedersen Zari M (eds) Materials for a healthy ecological and sustainable built environment: principles for evaluation. Woodhead Publishing, Duxford, pp 357–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu Z, Little JC (2012a) Materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. In: Pacheco-Torgal F, Jalali S, Fucic A (eds) Toxicity of building materials. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, pp 76–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liu Z, Little JC (2012b) Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs): phthalates and flame retardants. In: Pacheco-Torgal F, Jalali S, Fucic A (eds) Toxicity of building materials. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, pp 122–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lucas J-P, Le Bot B, Glorennec P, Etchevers A, Bretin P, Douay F, Sébille V, Bellanger L, Mandin C (2012) Lead contamination in French children’s homes and environment. Environ Res 116:58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Martinez-Arguelles DB, McIntosh M, Rohlicek CV, Culty M, Zirkin BR, Papadopoulos V (2013) Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 266(1):95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nielsen GD, Wolkoff P (2010) Cancer effects of formaldehyde: a proposal for an indoor air guideline value. Arch Toxicol 84:423–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nielsen GD, Larsen ST, Wolkoff P (2013) Recent trend in risk assessment of formaldehyde exposures from indoor air. Arch Toxicol 87:73–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Olsen NJ, Franklin PJ, Reid A, de Klerk NH, Threlfall TJ, Shilkin K, Musk B (2011) Increasing incidence of malignant mesothelioma after exposure to asbestos during home maintenance and renovation. Med J Australia 195(5):271–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pacheco-Torgal F (2012) Introduction: types of potentially toxic building materials. In: Pacheco-Torgal F, Jalali S, Fucic A (eds) Toxicity of building materials. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, p xvCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Park E-K, Takahashi K, Jiang Y, Movahed M, Kameda T (2012) Elimination of asbestos use and asbestos-related diseases: an unfinished story. Cancer Sci 103(10):1751–1755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pele LC, Thoree V, Bruggraber SFA, Koller D, Thompson RPH, Lomer MC, Powell JJ (2015) Pharmaceutical/food grade titanium dioxide particles are absorbed into bloodstream of human volunteers. Particle Fibre Toxicol 12:26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Petrović EK (2017a) Persisting issues with the most recognised building material health risks: lead and asbestos. In: Petrović EK, Vale B, Pedersen Zari M (eds) Materials for a healthy ecological and sustainable built environment: principles for evaluation. Woodhead Publishing, Duxford, pp 155–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Petrović EK (2017b) An overview of health hazards from materials: application of principles. In: Petrović EK, Vale B, Pedersen Zari M (eds) Materials for a healthy ecological and sustainable built environment: principles for evaluation. Woodhead Publishing, Duxford, pp 203–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Philp RB (2001) Ecosystems and human health: toxicology and environmental hazards. Lewis Publishers, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Potter RM, Olang N (2013) The effect of a new formaldehyde-free binder on the dissolution rate of glass wool fibre in physiological saline solution. Particle Fibre Toxicol 10:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Proquin H, Rodríguez-Ibarra C, Moonen CGJ, Urrutia Ortega IM, Briedé JJ, de Kok TM, van Loveren H, Chirino YI (2016) Titanium dioxide food additive (E171) induces ROS formation and genotoxicity: contribution of micro and nano-sized fractions. Mutagenesis 32:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pyl SP, Dijkmans T, Antonykutty JM, Reyniers M-F, Harlin A, Van Geem KM, Marin GB (2012) Wood-derived olefins by steam cracking of hydrodeoxygenated tall oils. Bioresour Technol 126:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rass-Hansen J, Falsig H, Jørgensen B, Christensen CH (2007) Perspective bioethanol: fuel or feedstock? J Chem Technol Biotechnol 82:329–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Runge CF, Senauer B (2007) How biofuels could starve the poor. The New York Times May 7, 2007. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/cfr/world/20070501faessay_v86n3_runge_senauer.html?pagewanted=print&_r=0. Accessed Oct 2016
  47. 47.
    Safer States (2017) Formaldehyde. Retrieved from www.saferstates.org. Accessed Sep 2017
  48. 48.
    Salthammer T (2015) The formaldehyde dilemma. Int J Hygiene Environ Health 218(4):433–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Salthammer T, Mentese S, Marutzky R (2010) Formaldehyde in the indoor environment. Chem Rev 110:2536–2572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sanders T, Liu Y, Buchner V, Tchounwou PB (2009) Neurotoxic effects and biomarkers of lead exposure: a Review. Rev Environ Health 24(1):15–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Saunders T (2002) The boiled frog syndrome: your health and the built environment. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stapleton HM, Sharma S, Getzinger G, Ferguson PL, Gabriel M, Webster TF, Blum A (2012) Novel and high volume use flame retardants in US couches reflective of the 2005 PentaBDE phase out. Environ Sci Technol 46(24):13432–13439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Statista (2017) World lead consumption from 2004 and 2016. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/264877/world-consumption-of-lead-metal/. Accessed Aug 2017.
  54. 54.
    Tabone MD, Cregg JJ, Beckman EJ, Landis AE (2010) Sustainability metrics: life-cycle assessment and green design in polymers. Environ Sci Technol 44(21):8264–8269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    USGS (2017) Mineral commodity summaries by the US Geological Survey. Retrieved from www.usgs.gov. Accessed Aug 2017
  56. 56.
    Wargocki P, Sundell J, Bischof W, Brundrett G, Fanger PO, Gyntelberg F, Hanssen SO, Harrison P, Pickering A, Seppänen O, Wouters P (2002) Ventilation and health in non-industrial indoor environments: report from a European multidisciplinary scientific consensus meeting (EUROVEN). Indoor Air 12(2):113–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Weschler CJ (2011) Chemistry in Indoor Environments: 20 years of research. Indoor Air 21(3):205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    WHO (World Health Organisation) (2010) WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: selected pollutants. Copenhagen: World Health Organisation. Retrieved from www.who.int. Accessed Sep 2013
  59. 59.
    WHO (World Health Organisation) (2017) Retrieved from www.who.int. Accessed Sep 2017
  60. 60.
    Xu Y, Liu Z, Park J, Clausen PA, Benning JL, Little JC (2012) Measuring and predicting the emission rate of phthalate plasticizer from vinyl flooring in a specially-designed chamber. Environ Sci Technol 46(22):12534–12541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yeadon P (2011) Materializations of nanotechnology in architecture. In: Schörpfer T (ed) Material design: informing architecture by materiality. Birkhäuser GmbH, BaselGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Liu G, Cheresh P, Kamp DW (2013) Molecular Basis of Asbestos-Induced Lung Disease. Annual Reviews: Pathology Mechanisms of Disease 8:161–87.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chen T, Yan J, Li Y (2014) Genotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 22:94–104.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Victoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations