Mapkap Kinase 2/3 (MK2/3)
Reference work entry
Formally, all protein kinases downstream to MAP kinases should be regarded as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MKs). This would include ribosomal S6-kinases (RSKs); mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases (MSKs); MAP kinase-interacting kinases (MNKs); as well as MK2, MK3, and MK5/PRAK (Roux and Blenis 2004). However, due to the specificity of activation, this group of protein kinases is further subdivided (Fig. 1): RSKs are activated by classical ERKs (Erk1/Erk2) and MSKs and MNKs are phosphorylated by both ERKs and p38 MAPK. MK2 and MK3 are the only MKs which are exclusively activated by p38 MAPK. MK5/PRAK has been described as a “p38-regulated and -activated kinase (PRAK),” but its activation by p38 MAPK is challenged, and alternative activation by atypical MAPKs (Erk3/Erk4) is discussed (Gaestel 2006). For historical reasons RSK was designated MAPKAPK 1...
- Ehlting C, Ronkina N, Böhmer O, Albrecht U, Bode KA, Lang KS, et al. Distinct functions of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinases MK2 and MK3: MK2 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation by preventing negative regulatory effects of MK3. J Biol Chem. 2011;286(27):24113–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mourey RJ, Burnette BL, Brustkern SJ, Daniels JS, Hirsch JL, Hood WF, et al. A benzothiophene inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha production and has oral anti-inflammatory efficacy in acute and chronic models of inflammation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;333:797–807.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ronkina N, Kotlyarov A, Dittrich-Breiholz O, Kracht M, Hitti E, Milarski K, et al. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinases MK2 and MK3 cooperate in stimulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthesis and stabilization of p38 MAPK. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:170–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wei Y, An Z, Zou Z, Sumpter R, Su M, Zang X, et al. The stress-responsive kinases MAPKAPK2/MAPKAPK3 activate starvation-induced autophagy through Beclin 1 phosphorylation. eLife. 2015;4:e05289.Google Scholar
© Springer International Publishing AG 2018