In 1896, physician George Beatson observed that removal of the ovaries caused regression of mammary tumors in women. His experiments were the first to establish a link between ovarian secretions and breast cancer. Later in the early 1930s, the “female” sex hormones, estrone and estriol, could be isolated from human pregnancy urine, followed by isolation of a third estrogen, estradiol (E2), from pig follicular fluid. Shortly thereafter, a number of estrogenic compounds were synthesized and used therapeutically, but the mechanisms of estrogen action remained obscure. However, in 1958 Elwood Jensen produced a major breakthrough when he used a radioactive marker to demonstrate that only estrogen-responsive tissues were able to concentrate injected estrogen from the blood, suggesting the existence of estrogen-binding components, which were called “estrogen receptors (ERs).” Further...
- Kininis M, Chen BS, Diehl AG, Isaacs GD, Zhang T, Siepel AC, et al. Genomic analyses of transcription factor binding, histone acetylation, and gene expression reveal mechanistically distinct classes of estrogen-regulated promoters. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5090–104.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar