Casein Kinase II
Protein kinase CK2 was isolated almost 60 years ago on the basis of its ability to phosphorylate the milk protein casein (Allende and Allende 1995; Venerando et al. 2014). As a result, it was originally designated “casein kinase II,” though this misnomer is less frequently used because of the lack of physiological significance for the phosphorylation of casein by CK2. Ironically, the enzyme/substrate relationship between CK2 and casein illustrates somewhat of a recurring theme. In this respect, over 50 years of research on CK2 has resulted in a compilation of a very large number of putative CK2 substrates, while the functional analysis of these phosphorylation events has lagged comparatively behind. In large part, the identification of many CK2 substrates has been promoted by its relatively simple and somewhat unique preference for acidic specificity determinants (S/T-X-X- E/D/pS/pY) (Meggio and Pinna 2003...
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