The ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of small GTP-binding proteins are ubiquitously expressed and involved in many cellular events such as cell adhesion, cell migration, neurite outgrowth, cell secretion, and endocytosis (D’Souza-Schorey and Chavrier 2006). In mammals, the ARF family consists of six members (ARFs 1–6), and ARFs 1–5 function at the Golgi whereas ARF6 regulates cellular events at the plasma membrane (Donaldson and Jackson 2011). Since ARFs belong to the Ras superfamily of GTPases, they act as molecular switches by cycling between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms. They depend on guanine exchange factors (GEFs) for activation and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for...
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