Nerve terminals release neurotransmitters by exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, a process requiring prior accumulation within the vesicles. For “classical” (small-molecule) transmitters, this accumulation results from active transport of cytosolic transmitter across the vesicular membrane into the vesicle lumen. This transport involves a V-type proton-pumping ATPase, which acidifies and positively charges the vesicle lumen, and a secondary active transporter, which uses the proton electrochemical gradient across the vesicular membrane to accumulate specific transmitters (Edwards 2007).
The vesicular inhibitory amino acid transmitter (VIAAT), also known as vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), ensures the vesicular uptake of the inhibitory amino acids GABA and glycine. VIAAT identification was initiated by genetic studies of GABAergic...
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