AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK)
Reference work entry
AMPK (5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) (EC; 188.8.131.52) is a cellular energy sensor that is activated by increased intracellular levels of AMP or ADP produced as a result of unrestrained ATP hydrolysis, thus representing scarcity of cellular ATP. AMPK, therefore, allows adaptation to low energy conditions to preserve the cellular energy homeostasis and in response increases catabolism to generate more ATP. Besides acting as a sensor for intracellular metabolic stress signals, due to nutritional insufficiency and hypoxia, AMPK also gets activated by an array of physiological stimulations, including calcium concentration via calmodulin kinase (CAMKKβ), action of various hormones, and cytokines. In brief, once activated by sensing the falling energy (ATP) status, it...
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