IL-1 Receptor Family
The family of IL-1 receptors (IL-1R) belongs to the large superfamily of TIR domain-containing receptors, key molecules of innate immunity, which is the fast and non-specific type of immune response to pathogens and other stressful events (Boraschi and Tagliabue 2013; Dinarello 2013). The TIR superfamily encompasses Toll-like receptors (TLR), which are the main sensors of exogenous molecules (in general microbial components) and the IL-1R family, which bind endogenous inflammation-related cytokines.
The two families differ in their extracellular ligand-binding domains, which are different and specific for groups of ligands, with the IL-1R family being immunoglobulin (Ig) domain-bearing receptors, while the TLR family encompasses receptors with a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain. On the other hand, receptors of the TIR superfamily are characterized by the presence of a common sequence, the Toll-IL-1 Receptor (TIR) domain, in...
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