Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi


  • Suren A. TatulianEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101671


Historical Background

Discovery and isolation of insulin from pancreatic extract in 1922 (Banting et al. 1922) offered life-saving opportunities to diabetes mellitus patients and sparked active research on its mechanism of action. It was not until 1949 that Levine et al. (1949) identified significant reduction of blood sugar following intravenous administration of insulin to dogs, suggesting that insulin facilitates transfer of hexoses across cell membranes. This raised “the question of mechanism by which a molecule of the insulin type may affect the transfer of substances” (Levine et al. 1949). The idea of insulin receptor (IR) was hovering in the air for over two decades. In 1970, binding of radiolabeled insulin to rat liver plasma membranes was demonstrated (House and Weidemann 1970). Soon after, saturable, reversible, and high-affinity (KD = 7 × 10−11 M to 3 × 10−9M) binding of insulin to...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics, College of SciencesUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA